How to format your references using the Integral Equations and Operator Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Integral Equations and Operator Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liedl, T.: Nanotechnology: Pathfinder for DNA constructs. Nature. 523, 412–413 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Witt, E., Ashworth, A.: Biomedicine. D-Day for BRCA2. Science. 297, 534 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Fortin, N.J., Wright, S.P., Eichenbaum, H.: Recollection-like memory retrieval in rats is dependent on the hippocampus. Nature. 431, 188–191 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shima, S., Pilak, O., Vogt, S., Schick, M., Stagni, M.S., Meyer-Klaucke, W., Warkentin, E., Thauer, R.K., Ermler, U.: The crystal structure of [Fe]-hydrogenase reveals the geometry of the active site. Science. 321, 572–575 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Purkis, S., Klemas, V.: Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, UK (2011)
An edited book
Armstrong, R., Durnescu, I. eds: Parole and Beyond: International Experiences of Life After Prison. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Fichter, K., Beucker, S.: Managing Innovation Communities: Best Practice Reports. In: Fichter, K. and Beucker, S. (eds.) Innovation Communities: Teamworking of Key Persons - A Success Factor in Radical Innovation. pp. 227–267. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Integral Equations and Operator Theory.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: How Will The Barrier Reef Recover From The Death Of One-Third Of Its Northern Corals?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Reading First: States Report Improvements in Reading Instruction, but Additional Procedures Would Clarify Education’s Role in Ensuring Proper Implementation by States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnard, S.: Police officers’ attitudes about rape victims, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Uphold a Death Sentence Twice Overturned, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntegral Equations and Operator Theory
AbbreviationIntegral Equations Operator Theory
ISSN (print)0378-620X
ISSN (online)1420-8989
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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