How to format your references using the Integral Equations and Operator Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Integral Equations and Operator Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M.: The quiet rise of the clinical contractor. Nature. 441, 22–23 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Elbert, T., Schauer, M.: Burnt into memory. Nature. 419, 883 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel, W.W., van Beek, L.P.H., Bierkens, M.F.P.: Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science. 328, 1382–1385 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Trouet, V., Esper, J., Graham, N.E., Baker, A., Scourse, J.D., Frank, D.C.: Persistent positive North Atlantic oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science. 324, 78–80 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xiu, L.: Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Cornelius-White, J.H.D., Motschnig-Pitrik, R., Lux, M. eds: Interdisciplinary Handbook of the Person-Centered Approach: Research and Theory. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Bowen, B.M., Hershkop, S., Keromytis, A.D., Stolfo, S.J.: Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents. In: Chen, Y., Dimitriou, T.D., and Zhou, J. (eds.) Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 5th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2009, Athens, Greece, September 14-18, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 51–70. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Integral Equations and Operator Theory.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Future Generations Of Lab Rats Could Be Completely See-Through,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Transportation: Progress of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, Q.: East Asian backpacker tourists’ motivations for participating in backpacking, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Village Wants Restaurant Wastewater Degreased, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntegral Equations and Operator Theory
AbbreviationIntegral Equations Operator Theory
ISSN (print)0378-620X
ISSN (online)1420-8989
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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