How to format your references using the Integral Equations and Operator Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Integral Equations and Operator Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coles, P.: The state of the Universe. Nature. 433, 248–256 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hauser, M.D., Bever, T.: Behavior. A biolinguistic agenda. Science. 322, 1057–1059 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanaka, G., Urabe, C., Aihara, K.: Random and targeted interventions for epidemic control in metapopulation models. Sci. Rep. 4, 5522 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsoi, M., Jansen, A.G., Bass, J., Chiang, W.C., Tsoi, V., V., Wyder, P.: Generation and detection of phase-coherent current-driven magnons in magnetic multilayers. Nature. 406, 46–48 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bays, D.H.: A New History of Christianity in China. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Valavanis, K.P., Vachtsevanos, G.J. eds: Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Mángano, M.G., Buatois, L.A., Wilson, M., Droser, M.: The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. In: Mángano, M.G. and Buatois, L.A. (eds.) The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 1: Precambrian and Paleozoic. pp. 127–156. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Integral Equations and Operator Theory.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Ice Ages Don’t All End Alike,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahler, E.B.: Defining career success in the 21st century: A narrative study of intentional work role transitions, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M.: Where Po’ Boys Will Be Po’ Boys, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntegral Equations and Operator Theory
AbbreviationIntegral Equations Operator Theory
ISSN (print)0378-620X
ISSN (online)1420-8989
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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