How to format your references using the Innovative Infrastructure Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Infrastructure Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jorgensen RA (2011) Plant science. A window on the sophistication of plants. Science 333:1103–1104
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulch A, Chamberlain CP (2006) Earth science: the rise and growth of Tibet. Nature 439:670–671
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosu S, Libuda DE, Villeneuve AM (2011) Robust crossover assurance and regulated interhomolog access maintain meiotic crossover number. Science 334:1286–1289
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Machida Y, Nakatsuji S, Onoda S, et al (2010) Time-reversal symmetry breaking and spontaneous Hall effect without magnetic dipole order. Nature 463:210–213

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wesley LD (2010) Geotechnical Engineering in Residual Soils. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sankai Y, Suzuki K, Hasegawa Y (2014) Cybernics: Fusion of human, machine and information systems. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Llorente B (2016) Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs. In: Stange C (ed) Carotenoids in Nature: Biosynthesis, Regulation and Function. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 141–160

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Infrastructure Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) This Font Simulates What It’s Like To Have Dyslexia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Highway Trust Fund: DOT Has Opportunities to Improve Tracking and Reporting of Highway Spending. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson JS (2008) Boys in crisis: A grounded theory study of male high school dropouts in a rural setting. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2014) Beyond Energy, Matter, Time and Space. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Infrastructure Solutions
AbbreviationInnov. Infrastruct. Solut.
ISSN (print)2364-4176
ISSN (online)2364-4184

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