How to format your references using the Innovative Infrastructure Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Infrastructure Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JS (2004) Chemistry. Chemical topology and interlocking molecules. Science 304:1256–1258
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwab ME, Buchli AD (2012) Drug research: plug the real brain drain. Nature 483:267–268
A journal article with 3 authors
DeLoache JS, Uttal DH, Rosengren KS (2004) Scale errors offer evidence for a perception-action dissociation early in life. Science 304:1027–1029
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Self S, Blake S, Sharma K, et al (2008) Sulfur and chlorine in late Cretaceous Deccan magmas and eruptive gas release. Science 319:1654–1657

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henry-Labordère A (2009) Virtual Roaming Systems for GSM, GPRS and UMTS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sickafus KE, Kotomin EA, Uberuaga BP (2007) Radiation Effects in Solids. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Bertino E, Martino LD, Paci F, Squicciarini AC (2010) Digital Identity Management and Trust Negotiation. In: Martino L, Paci F, Squicciarini A (eds) Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 79–114

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Infrastructure Solutions.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) There Might Be Some Unwanted Guests At Your BBQ This Summer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Supplemental Student Loans: Who Borrows and Who Defaults. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasar K (2009) Electrified voices: Media technology and discourse in modern Japan. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM (2017) Ousted Fox News Executive May Go to White House. New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Infrastructure Solutions
AbbreviationInnov. Infrastruct. Solut.
ISSN (print)2364-4176
ISSN (online)2364-4184

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