How to format your references using the Aquatic Biosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Biosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wake DB. Ecology. Facing extinction in real time. Science. 2012;335:1052–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lewcock JW, Reed RR. Neuroscience. ORs rule the roost in the olfactory system. Science. 2003;302:2078–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. O’Connor J, Zheng X, Zhou Z. Zheng et al. reply. Nature. 2013;499:E1-2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Engel A, Thoms S, Riebesell U, Rochelle-Newall E, Zondervan I. Polysaccharide aggregation as a potential sink of marine dissolved organic carbon. Nature. 2004;428:929–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bauldry WC. Introduction to Real Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. De Voogt P, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 208: Perfluorinated alkylated substances. 1st edition. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Burnett L, Sugiyama H, Washburn C, Bieber A, Chandler DE. Allurin: Exploring the Activity of a Frog Sperm Chemoattractant in Mammals. In: Sawada H, Inoue N, Iwano M, editors. Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014. p. 31–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Biosystems.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Creepy Swarm Of Baby Crabs Crawl Over Man’s Hand. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Legislative Developments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Martinez J. Effective nonprofit collaborative networks. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B. Bomber Hits Courthouse in Damascus. New York Times. 2017;:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Biosystems
ISSN (print)2046-9063

Other styles