How to format your references using the Infrastructure Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructure Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholson DW (2000) From bench to clinic with apoptosis-based therapeutic agents. Nature 407:810–816
A journal article with 2 authors
Agosta SJ, Dunham AE (2004) Comment on “How the horned lizard got its horns.” Science 306:230; author reply 230
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayadas AF, Bourne J, Bacsich P (2009) Online education today. Science 323:85–89
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Peng Q, Guo J, Fu H, et al (2014) Degradation behavior of Mg-based biomaterials containing different long-period stacking ordered phases. Sci Rep 4:3620

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli RJ, Milosevic DZ (2015) Project Management ToolBox. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Steel J (ed) (2014) Living Donor Advocacy: An Evolving Role Within Transplantation. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Newton A, Vickers A (2007) The Benefits of Electronic Safety Cases. In: Redmill F, Anderson T (eds) The Safety of Systems: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Safety-critical Systems Symposium, Bristol, UK, 13–15 February 2007. Springer, London, pp 69–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructure Complexity.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) How Do Parasitic Birds Learn To Be Like Their Biological Parents? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Construction of a Computer Facilities Building by the Social Security Administration: Justification and Alternatives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvan R (2015) A mixed-methods study of mathematics and science achievement of refugee students in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M (2017) Best Neighborhoods for Night Workers. New York Times RE2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholson 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Nicholson 2000; Agosta and Dunham 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Agosta and Dunham 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Peng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructure Complexity
AbbreviationInfrastruct. Complex.
ISSN (online)2196-3258

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