How to format your references using the Infrastructure Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructure Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rodriguez J (2004) Recruiters and industry. Rules of engagement. Nature 429:486
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully R, Livingston DM (2000) In search of the tumour-suppressor functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nature 408:429–432
A journal article with 3 authors
Thornalley DJR, Elderfield H, McCave IN (2009) Holocene oscillations in temperature and salinity of the surface subpolar North Atlantic. Nature 457:711–714
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shi Y, Chichung Lie D, Taupin P, et al (2004) Expression and function of orphan nuclear receptor TLX in adult neural stem cells. Nature 427:78–83

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andersson C, Freeman D, James I, et al (2006) Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Mondal PP (2014) Fundamentals of Fluorescence Microscopy: Exploring Life with Light. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Krus P (2015) Design Space Configuration for Minimizing Design Information Entropy. In: Chakrabarti A (ed) ICoRD’15 – Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1: Theory, Research Methodology, Aesthetics, Human Factors and Education. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 51–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructure Complexity.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Five Known Asteroids Will Give Earth A Close Shave in The Coming Year. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Must Act Quickly to Prevent Systems Failures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rawashdeh MY (2013) A Relational Framework for Clustering and Cluster Validity and the Generalization of the Silhouette Measure. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by (2005) Arts, Briefly; Ukrainian Song Rewritten for Eurovision Contest. New York Times E2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rodriguez 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Scully and Livingston 2000; Rodriguez 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Livingston 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructure Complexity
AbbreviationInfrastruct. Complex.
ISSN (online)2196-3258

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