How to format your references using the Infrastructure Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructure Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baughman RH (2003) Auxetic materials: avoiding the shrink. Nature 425:667
A journal article with 2 authors
Ong NP, Cava RJ (2004) Physics. Electronic frustration on a triangular lattice. Science 305:52–53
A journal article with 3 authors
Colley DG, LoVerde PT, Savioli L (2001) Infectious disease. Medical helminthology in the 21st century. Science 293:1437–1438
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sancak Y, Peterson TR, Shaul YD, et al (2008) The Rag GTPases bind raptor and mediate amino acid signaling to mTORC1. Science 320:1496–1501

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe TM, Chubb JE (2009) Liberating Learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA
An edited book
Liu Z, Xia CH (eds) (2008) Performance Modeling and Engineering. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Othieno H, Awange J (2016) Energy Resources in Western and Central Africa. In: Awange J (ed) Energy Resources in Africa: Distribution, Opportunities and Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 165–192

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructure Complexity.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) We Can Still Keep Global Warming Below 2℃ – But The Hard Work Is About To Start. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Intellectual Property: Federal Enforcement Has Generally Increased, but Assessing Performance Could Strengthen Law Enforcement Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newfang DA (2017) A Historical Assessment of Asbestos Exposure, Abatement Methods and Containment Efficacy During Asbestos Containing Material Removal Activities at a Large Federal Facility. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip M, Schwirtz M (2015) Federal Inquiry on Rikers Turns to Union Chief. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baughman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Baughman 2003; Ong and Cava 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ong and Cava 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Sancak et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructure Complexity
AbbreviationInfrastruct. Complex.
ISSN (online)2196-3258
Scope

Other styles