How to format your references using the Infrastructure Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructure Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zender L (2014) Cancer: interference identifies immune modulators. Nature 506:39–40
A journal article with 2 authors
Montgomery DR, Manga M (2003) Streamflow and water well responses to earthquakes. Science 300:2047–2049
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee J, Gross SP, Lee J (2013) Improved network community structure improves function prediction. Sci Rep 3:2197
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shaw P, Greenstein D, Lerch J, et al (2006) Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents. Nature 440:676–679

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lam J (2014) Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rosenberg E, DeLong EF, Lory S, et al (eds) (2014) The Prokaryotes: Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Buitendijk GHS, Springelkamp H, Ho L, Klaver CCW (2013) Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Genetics and Gene-Environment Interaction. In: Scholl HPN, Massof RW, West S (eds) Ophthalmology and the Ageing Society. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructure Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Do You Hear What I Hear? Amazing Auditory Illusions Explained. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) School-Meals Programs: USDA Has Enhanced Controls, but Additional Verification Could Help Ensure Legitimate Program Access. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaves JS (2009) Novel approach for the creation of thin films and interconnects using single walled carbon nanotubes inkjet technology and bacteria. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Time for Recalling the Departed And Reuniting the Long-Lost Related. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zender 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Montgomery and Manga 2003; Zender 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Montgomery and Manga 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Shaw et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructure Complexity
AbbreviationInfrastruct. Complex.
ISSN (online)2196-3258

Other styles