How to format your references using the Infrastructure Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructure Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morgan B (2014) Fatty liver disease: the liver labyrinth. Nature 516:S8-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang Y, Li D (2014) Soil nitric oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems in China: a synthesis of modeling and measurements. Sci Rep 4:7406
A journal article with 3 authors
Hembacher S, Giessibl FJ, Mannhart J (2004) Force microscopy with light-atom probes. Science 305:380–383
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Giordano CR, Terlecky LJ, Bollig-Fischer A, et al (2014) Amyloid-beta neuroprotection mediated by a targeted antioxidant. Sci Rep 4:4983

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu J (2012) Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Nguyen NT (ed) (2013) Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence IX. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sarenac D (2011) Modal Logic for Qualitative Dynamics. In: Girard P, Roy O, Marion M (eds) Dynamic Formal Epistemology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 75–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructure Complexity.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Watch Indian Locals Save A Leopard From Drowning. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Information Technology: HUD Needs to Strengthen Its Capacity to Manage and Modernize Its Environment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng YH-H (2008) Motivation of participation in inservice training based on problem solving: A modified Delphi study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) Insult My Mom, Please. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morgan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Morgan 2014; Huang and Li 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Li 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Giordano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructure Complexity
AbbreviationInfrastruct. Complex.
ISSN (online)2196-3258

Other styles