How to format your references using the INFORMS Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2015) Rejection of GM crops is not a failure for science. Nature 525(7567):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cummings CA, Relman DA (2002) Genomics and microbiology. Microbial forensics--"cross-examining pathogens". Science 296(5575):1976–1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
Milinski M, Semmann D, Krambeck HJ (2002) Reputation helps solve the “tragedy of the commons.” Nature 415(6870):424–426.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mekel-Bobrov N, Gilbert SL, Evans PD, Vallender EJ, Anderson JR, Hudson RR, Tishkoff SA, Lahn BT (2005) Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens. Science 309(5741):1720–1722.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leibowitz ML, Bova A, Hammond PB (2010) The Endowment Model of Investing (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Sehoole C, Knight J eds. (2013) Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs (SensePublishers, Rotterdam).
A chapter in an edited book
Semm T, Greene K (2013) Globalization, Aging, and the Power of the Image. Arxer SL, Murphy JW, eds. The Symbolism of Globalization, Development, and Aging. (Springer, New York, NY), 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Transactions on Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Teeny Songbird Makes Colossal 1700 Mile Journey Over Atlantic. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success but Can Be Strengthened (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee D (2010) Subjective strain, anger, and delinquency: Evidence from South Korea. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2009) Putin’s Party Wins in Regional Elections Across Russia. New York Times (October 13).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cummings and Relman 2002, Macilwain 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cummings and Relman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mekel-Bobrov et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Transactions on Education
ISSN (online)1532-0545

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