How to format your references using the INFORMS Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laundré JW (2014) Ecology. How large predators manage the cost of hunting. Science 346(6205):33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finke DL, Snyder WE (2008) Niche partitioning increases resource exploitation by diverse communities. Science 321(5895):1488–1490.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu D, Amagai S, Bricken J (2012) Science education. Engaging teachers, scientists, and multimedia to promote learning. Science 336(6088):1509.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Eldrett JS, Harding IC, Wilson PA, Butler E, Roberts AP (2007) Continental ice in Greenland during the Eocene and Oligocene. Nature 446(7132):176–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago C (2015) Implant Restorations (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
Dickinson SJ, Pizlo Z eds. (2013) Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Springer, London).
A chapter in an edited book
Lakshmikantham V, Leela S, Martynyuk AA (2015) Stability In The Models of Real World Phenomena. Leela S, Martynyuk AA, eds. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems. Systems & Control: Foundations & Applications. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 253–309.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Transactions on Education.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) More Male Alpine Plants In A Warmer, Drier World. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Taxpayer Information: Increased Sharing and Verifying of Information Could Improve Education’s Award Decisions (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pappa DM (2002) A Study of Various Process Factors in the Scale Up of a High Shear Granulated Product. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2011) Cancer’s Secrets Come Into Sharper Focus. New York Times (August 15).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laundré 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Finke and Snyder 2008, Laundré 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finke and Snyder 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Eldrett et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Transactions on Education
ISSN (online)1532-0545

Other styles