How to format your references using the INFORMS Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang NX (2011) China’s chemists should avoid the Vanity Fair. Nature 476(7360):253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brei B, Fish D (2003) Comment on “Parasites as a viability cost of sexual selection in natural populations of mammals.” Science 300(5616):55; author reply 55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willner AE, Wang J, Huang H (2012) Applied physics. A different angle on light communications. Science 337(6095):655–656.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fagarasan S, Muramatsu M, Suzuki K, Nagaoka H, Hiai H, Honjo T (2002) Critical roles of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the homeostasis of gut flora. Science 298(5597):1424–1427.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter KB (2014) Actionable Intelligence (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Bruijn J de (2008) Modeling Semantic Web Services: The Web Service Modeling Language Fensel D, Kerrigan M, Keller U, Lausen H, Scicluna J, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Savo V, Arndt UM (2014) From Learning to Teaching: Bridging Students’ Experience and Teachers’ Expectations. Quave CL, ed. Innovative Strategies for Teaching in the Plant Sciences. (Springer, New York, NY), 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Transactions on Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Scientists Make “Surprising” Discovery On Comet 67P. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) FAA Encountering Problems in Acquiring Major Automated Systems (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curiel AR (2013) A re-examination of the Meyers and Volbrecht motor equation for the identification of suspect effort. Doctoral dissertation. (Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz J, Pérez-Peña R, Healy J (2017) Deluged and Weary, Texas Braces for Years of Recovery. New York Times (August 28).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brei and Fish 2003, Wang 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brei and Fish 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Fagarasan et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Transactions on Education
ISSN (online)1532-0545

Other styles