How to format your references using the INFORMS Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erler JT (2014) Cancer: Disabling defences in the brain. Nature 508(7494):46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegerl GC, Russon T (2011) Climate change. Using the past to predict the future? Science 334(6061):1360–1361.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alfe D, Gillan MJ, Price GD (2000) Constraints on the composition of the Earth’s core from ab initio calculations. Nature 405(6783):172–175.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brack AS, Conboy MJ, Roy S, Lee M, Kuo CJ, Keller C, Rando TA (2007) Increased Wnt signaling during aging alters muscle stem cell fate and increases fibrosis. Science 317(5839):807–810.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH, Drew LJ (2010) Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Nicola RD, Hennicker R eds. (2015) Software, Services, and Systems: Essays Dedicated to Martin Wirsing on the Occasion of His Retirement from the Chair of Programming and Software Engineering (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Sheppard B, Slavin D (2009) The Use of War Game Simulations for Business Strategies. Linkov I, Ferguson E, Magar VS, eds. Real-Time and Deliberative Decision Making: Application to Emerging Stressors. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht), 77–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Transactions on Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Resurgent Pine Martens Could Be Good News For Red Squirrels. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Intercity Passenger Rail: Decisions on the Future of Amtrak and Intercity Passenger Rail Are Approaching (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Legaspi J (2010) Accelerated supported employment program: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2017) After the Deluge, Going On With the Show. New York Times (October 23).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Erler 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Erler 2014, Hegerl and Russon 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hegerl and Russon 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Brack et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Transactions on Education
ISSN (online)1532-0545

Other styles