How to format your references using the INFORMS Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Agrawal AF (2001) Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Nature 411(6838):692–695.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jia T, Pamer EG (2009) Immunology. Dispensable but not irrelevant. Science 325(5940):549–550.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cerda E, Ravi-Chandar K, Mahadevan L (2002) Thin films. Wrinkling of an elastic sheet under tension. Nature 419(6907):579–580.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Thakkar S, Nanaware-Kharade N, Celikel R, Peterson EC, Varughese KI (2014) Affinity improvement of a therapeutic antibody to methamphetamine and amphetamine through structure-based antibody engineering. Sci. Rep. 4:3673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allan D, Bragg N (2012) 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Bleyer WA, Barr RD eds. (2007) Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Risku M, Pulkkinen S (2016) Finland: Finnish Principal. Ärlestig H, Day C, Johansson O, eds. A Decade of Research on School Principals: Cases from 24 Countries. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Transactions on Education.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) New Simulation Helps Explain The Mysteries Of Supercooled Water. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Declining Balance Raises Concerns over Ability to Meet Future Demands (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oteng Y (2001) Enquête sur la Pluralité Culturelle: Identité et Marginalisation dans le Roman Francophone Colonial et Postcolonial (Chraïbi, Kane, Kourouma, Boudjedra, Ben Jelloun). Doctoral dissertation. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Go Figure the American League East, Inside and Out. New York Times (August 7).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Agrawal 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Agrawal 2001, Jia and Pamer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jia and Pamer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Thakkar et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Transactions on Education
ISSN (online)1532-0545

Other styles