How to format your references using the INFORMS Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strasser P (2015) CHEMISTRY. Catalysts by Platonic design. Science 349(6246):379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thibault P, Menzel A (2013) Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements. Nature 494(7435):68–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weeks SJ, Currie B, Bakun A (2002) Massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic. Nature 415(6871):493–494.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sabín C, White A, Hackermuller L, Fuentes I (2014) Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Sci. Rep. 4:6436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu J, Tao D (2013) Modern Machine Learning Techniques and Their Applications in Cartoon Animation Research (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Guillonneau B (2009) Laparoscopic Techniques in Uro-Oncology Gill IS, Janetschek G, Tuerk IA, eds. (Springer, London).
A chapter in an edited book
Madureira PA (2015) Tumour Angiogenesis. de Mello RA, Tavares Á, Mountzios G, eds. International Manual of Oncology Practice: (iMOP) - Principles of Medical Oncology. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Transactions on Education.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Stunning New Ruby Seadragon Discovered. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) [Comments on Applicability of Vacancies Act to Various Labor and Education Officers] (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan A (2017) The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail. Doctoral dissertation. (Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Story L (2013) A Stealthy Subsidy Aiding Big Businesses Is Growing. New York Times (March 4).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strasser 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Strasser 2015, Thibault and Menzel 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thibault and Menzel 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Sabín et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Transactions on Education
ISSN (online)1532-0545

Other styles