How to format your references using the Archives of Psychiatric Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conley, D. J. (2012). Ecology: save the Baltic Sea. Nature, 486(7404), 463–464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, R. C., & Ambros, V. (2001). An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5543), 862–864.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moynier, F., Yin, Q.-Z., & Schauble, E. (2011). Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6023), 1417–1420.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brembs, B., Lorenzetti, F. D., Reyes, F. D., Baxter, D. A., & Byrne, J. H. (2002). Operant reward learning in Aplysia: neuronal correlates and mechanisms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1706–1709.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2015). Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Blanche, P.-A. (Ed.). (2016). Photorefractive Organic Materials and Applications (Vol. 240). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Scherer, G. G. (2013). Fuel Cell Types and Their Electrochemistry. In K.-D. Kreuer (Ed.), Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (pp. 97–119). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Psychiatric Nursing.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, May 4). Prejudice Can Actually Change How You View Faces. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Surface Transportation: DOT Is Progressing toward a Performance-Based Approach, but States and Grantees Report Potential Implementation Challenges (GAO-15-217). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekstrom, J. E. (2009). Factors influencing retention in a residential treatment program [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2009, March 22). Festival Lures Westchester’s High School Filmmakers. New York Times, WE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conley, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Conley, 2012; Lee & Ambros, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee & Ambros, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Moynier et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Brembs et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Psychiatric Nursing
AbbreviationArch. Psychiatr. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0883-9417
ScopePhychiatric Mental Health

Other styles