How to format your references using the Archives of Psychiatric Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kapan, D. D. (2001). Three-butterfly system provides a field test of müllerian mimicry. Nature, 409(6818), 338–340.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takano, Y., & Ukezono, M. (2014). An experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats. Scientific Reports, 4, 6652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Izumikawa, T., Sato, B., & Kitagawa, H. (2014). Chondroitin sulfate is indispensable for pluripotency and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 3701.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Navarro, P., Chambers, I., Karwacki-Neisius, V., Chureau, C., Morey, C., Rougeulle, C., & Avner, P. (2008). Molecular coupling of Xist regulation and pluripotency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5896), 1693–1695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F. A. (2005). On the Practice of Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Steiner, M., Barlet-Ros, P., & Bonaventure, O. (Eds.). (2015). Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: 7th International Workshop, TMA 2015, Barcelona, Spain, April 21-24, 2015. Proceedings (Vol. 9053). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lim, Y. A. L., Mahdy, M. A. K., & Surin, J. (2013). Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Southeast Asia. In Y. A. L. Lim & I. Vythilingam (Eds.), Parasites and their vectors: A special focus on Southeast Asia (pp. 77–102). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Psychiatric Nursing.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, August 23). Hydrogen-Generating Water Splitter Runs on AAA Battery. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Relocation of Space Shuttle Major Modification Work (GAO-03-294R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahler, E. B. (2008). Defining career success in the 21st century: A narrative study of intentional work role transitions [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2017, January 4). A Mother Struggles Alone to Keep Her Family United. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kapan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kapan, 2001; Takano & Ukezono, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Takano & Ukezono, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Izumikawa et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Navarro et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Psychiatric Nursing
AbbreviationArch. Psychiatr. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0883-9417
ScopePhychiatric Mental Health

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