How to format your references using the INFORMS Journal on Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Journal on Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA (2000) PALEOCLIMATE: An Appealing Snowball Earth That’s Still Hard to Swallow. Science 287(5459):1734–1736.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hibbs RE, Gouaux E (2011) Principles of activation and permeation in an anion-selective Cys-loop receptor. Nature 474(7349):54–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen HC, Herman MA, Clevers HC (2000) Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature 406(6795):527–532.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hussey NE, Abdel-Jawad M, Carrington A, Mackenzie AP, Balicas L (2003) A coherent three-dimensional Fermi surface in a high-transition-temperature superconductor. Nature 425(6960):814–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath AE (2011) Darwinism and the Divine (Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK).
An edited book
Kostrzewa RM ed. (2014) Handbook of Neurotoxicity (Springer, New York, NY).
A chapter in an edited book
Kleanthous S, Christophorou C, Tsiourti C, Dantas C, Wintjens R, Samaras G, Christodoulou E (2016) Analysis of Elderly Users’ Preferences and Expectations on Service Robot’s Personality, Appearance and Interaction. Zhou J, Salvendy G, eds. Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Healthy and Active Aging: Second International Conference, ITAP 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016 Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Journal on Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Greyscale On Game Of Thrones Has In Common With Leprosy. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) H.R. 4326: Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1981 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perfitt T (2009) Megaphone: Fault tolerant, scalable, and trustworthy peer-to-peer microblogging. Doctoral dissertation. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla S (2017) Jeweler’s Policies Masked Abuses, Suit Says. New York Times (March 6).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hibbs and Gouaux 2011, Kerr 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hibbs and Gouaux 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hussey et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Journal on Computing
ISSN (print)1091-9856
ISSN (online)1526-5528
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research

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