How to format your references using the INFORMS Journal on Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for INFORMS Journal on Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Champion PM (2005) Chemistry. Following the flow of energy in biomolecules. Science 310(5750):980–982.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beasley AJ, Schreier EJ (2012) Astronomy: The United States must rejoin the SKA. Nature 489(7416):363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer JP, Dineva E, Smith LB (2009) Comment on “Infants’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation.” Science 325(5948):1624; author reply 1624.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rowsell JLC, Spencer EC, Eckert J, Howard JAK, Yaghi OM (2005) Gas adsorption sites in a large-pore metal-organic framework. Science 309(5739):1350–1354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon C, Hale R (2012) Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
Bascia N, Cumming A, Datnow A, Leithwood K, Livingstone D eds. (2005) International Handbook of Educational Policy (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht).
A chapter in an edited book
Selgelid MJ (2016) Disease Prevention and Control. H. Barrett D, W. Ortmann L, Dawson A, Saenz C, Reis A, Bolan G, eds. Public Health Ethics: Cases Spanning the Globe. Public Health Ethics Analysis. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 95–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for INFORMS Journal on Computing.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Can You Spot The Mistake In This Simple Viral Puzzle? IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Agencies Should Encourage Greater Computer Use on Federal Design Projects (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blicha EA (2015) Music therapy program for older adults: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Megalogenis G (2016) Powering Australia’s economic surge. New York Times (November 1).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Champion 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Beasley and Schreier 2012, Champion 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beasley and Schreier 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Rowsell et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleINFORMS Journal on Computing
ISSN (print)1091-9856
ISSN (online)1526-5528
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research

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