How to format your references using the BMC Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bettencourt LMA. The origins of scaling in cities. Science. 2013;340:1438–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Paland S, Lynch M. Transitions to asexuality result in excess amino acid substitutions. Science. 2006;311:990–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Osawa M, Anderson DE, Erickson HP. Reconstitution of contractile FtsZ rings in liposomes. Science. 2008;320:792–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kicheva A, Pantazis P, Bollenbach T, Kalaidzidis Y, Bittig T, Jülicher F, et al. Kinetics of morphogen gradient formation. Science. 2007;315:521–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rémy J-G, Letamendia C. Home Area Networks and IPTV. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Groth P, Simperl E, Gray A, Sabou M, Krötzsch M, Lecue F, et al., editors. The Semantic Web – ISWC 2016: 15th International Semantic Web Conference, Kobe, Japan, October 17–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. McComas WF. Advance Organizers. In: McComas WF, editor. The Language of Science Education: An Expanded Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts in Science Teaching and Learning. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014. p. 4–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Nephrology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Stone Age Cannibals Didn’t Just Eat Each Other For The Calories. IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/stone-age-cannibals-didnt-just-eat-eachother-for-the-calories/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. America COMPETES Act: It Is Too Early to Evaluate Programs Long-Term Effectiveness, but Agencies Could Improve Reporting of High-Risk, High-Reward Research Priorities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Moeller RA. “No thanks, those are boy books”: A feminist cultural analysis of graphic novels as curricular materials. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. George T. Silly Bandz, the Bracelets That Spring Off Shelves. New York Times. 2010;:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Nephrology
AbbreviationBMC Nephrol.
ISSN (online)1471-2369
ScopeNephrology

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