How to format your references using the BMC Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Watanabe M. Small world, big hopes. Nature. 2003;426:478–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hu EM, Cowie LL. High-redshift galaxy populations. Nature. 2006;440:1145–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Khudiyev T, Tobail O, Bayindir M. Tailoring self-organized nanostructured morphologies in kilometer-long polymer fiber. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Loiseau C, Harrigan RJ, Bichet C, Julliard R, Garnier S, Lendvai AZ, et al. Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Guyader J-L. Vibration in Continuous Media. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Piscitelli SC, Rodvold KA, editors. Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases. Second Edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Keogh E. Recent Advances in Mining Time Series Data. In: Jorge AM, Torgo L, Brazdil P, Camacho R, Gama J, editors. Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2005: 9th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases, Porto, Portugal, October 3-7, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 6–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Nephrology.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. This Bionic Octopus Arm Can Wrap Around Objects And Pick Them Up. IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/this-bionic-octopus-arm-can-wrap-around-objects-and-pick-them-up/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Data Transparency: Oversight Needed to Address Underreporting and Inconsistencies on Federal Award Website. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garlapally V. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Impact on Metamorphosis and Thyroid Development in African Clawed Frogs. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly J. Betterton, Generously, Still Calls Itself a Resort; Betterton Still Calls Itself a Resort. New York Times. 1972;:TRAVEL AND RESORTSXX4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Nephrology
AbbreviationBMC Nephrol.
ISSN (online)1471-2369
ScopeNephrology

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