How to format your references using the BMC Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McGrew WC. Evolution. Chimpanzee technology. Science. 2010;328:579–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gibson BK, Flynn C. White dwarfs and dark matter. Science. 2001;292:2211.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ni J, Yan Q, Yu Y. How much metagenomic sequencing is enough to achieve a given goal? Sci Rep. 2013;3:1968.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Okeoma CM, Lovsin N, Peterlin BM, Ross SR. APOBEC3 inhibits mouse mammary tumour virus replication in vivo. Nature. 2007;445:927–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hoschette JA. The Engineer’s Career Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Dodis Y, Nielsen JB, editors. Theory of Cryptography: 12th Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2015, Warsaw, Poland, March 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Serra P, Duocastella M, Fernández-Pradas JM, Morenza JL. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer: A Laser-Based Technique for Biomolecules Printing. In: Ringeisen BR, Spargo BJ, Wu PK, editors. Cell and Organ Printing. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 53–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Nephrology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Check Out This Seal Riding A Whale. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/lucky-seal-rides-whale-get-free-dinner/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Working Capital Funds: Three Agency Perspectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bigelow RW. Perception of Online Legal Education among Recently Retired Law School Faculty. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Meyerowitz R, Kelly S. Box Seats; THE BIRDS OF SUMMER. New York Times. 2007;:810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Nephrology
AbbreviationBMC Nephrol.
ISSN (online)1471-2369
ScopeNephrology

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