How to format your references using the Sports Medicine - Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine - Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Laughlin RB. Physics. The cup of the hand. Science. 2004;303:1475–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cox CM, Chao BF. Detection of a large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial system since 1998. Science. 2002;297:831–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wender PA, Kee J-M, Warrington JM. Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science. 2008;320:649–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Petersen TH, Calle EA, Zhao L, Lee EJ, Gui L, Raredon MB, et al. Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science. 2010;329:538–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Diab WW, Frazier HM. Ethernet in the First Mile. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Wood LN. Becoming a Mathematician: An international perspective. Petocz P, Reid A, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kaltschmitt M, Streicher W, Wiese A. Solar Thermal Heat Utilisation. In: Kaltschmitt M, Streicher W, Wiese A, editors. Renewable Energy: Technology, and Environment Economics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 123–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine - Open.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Human-Like Robot Beats Other Bots In DARPA’s Robotics Challenge [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit Grants: Improved Management Could Reduce Misuse of Funds in UMTA’s Region IX. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Nov. Report No.: RCED-92-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Laskey E. Plasma glucagon during development of insulin resistance among healthy individuals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Nagourney A. ‘Everyone Has a Game Plan Until You Punch them in the Mouth.’ New York Times. 2014 Feb 26;MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine - Open
AbbreviationSports Med. Open
ISSN (print)2199-1170
ISSN (online)2198-9761

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