How to format your references using the Sports Medicine - Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine - Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wadman M. A merger too far? Nature. 2007;446:15.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Srivastava D, Olson EN. A genetic blueprint for cardiac development. Nature. 2000;407:221–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Huber GW, Shabaker JW, Dumesic JA. Raney Ni-Sn catalyst for H2 production from biomass-derived hydrocarbons. Science. 2003;300:2075–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yin Q-Z, Shi X, Chang C, Ng C-Y. Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science. 2009;324:1516; author reply 1516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gonzalez R, Qi F, Huang B. Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Tymieniecka A-T, editor. Destiny, the Inward Quest, Temporality and Life. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Roth D, Peretz H, Barak D. How Stigma Affects Us: The Voice of Self-advocates. In: Scior K, Werner S, editors. Intellectual Disability and Stigma: Stepping Out from the Margins. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine - Open.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New Oviraptorosaur Discovered at Railroad Construction Site in China [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/new-oviraptorosaur-discovered-railroad-construction-site-china/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund Expenditures on Purposes Other than Construction and Maintenance of Highways and Bridges during Fiscal Years 2004-2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Jun. Report No.: GAO-09-729R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Voma SK. Design of Power Management Circuit for Energy Harvesting Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Mets Lose Out on a Sweep as Familia and Flores Don’t Have It. New York Times. 2017 May 10;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine - Open
AbbreviationSports Med. Open
ISSN (print)2199-1170
ISSN (online)2198-9761
Scope

Other styles