How to format your references using the Sports Medicine - Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine - Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mestel L. Obituary: Hermann Bondi (1919-2005). Nature. 2005;437:828.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Frank SA, Nowak MA. Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer. Nature. 2003;422:494.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rogina B, Helfand SL, Frankel S. Longevity regulation by Drosophila Rpd3 deacetylase and caloric restriction. Science. 2002;298:1745.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chavez FP, Ryan J, Lluch-Cota SE, Niquen C M. From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science. 2003;299:217–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Diamond N. Between Skins. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
1. Jain VK, Verma A, editors. Physics of Semiconductor Devices: 17th International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Trebbi M, Villari D, Ruberto M. Materials for Injection Laryngoplasty: Current Application. In: Bergamini G, Presutti L, Molteni G, editors. Injection Laryngoplasty. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine - Open.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Diego The Giant Tortoise Helps Save His Species By Fathering 800 Offspring [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Montana’s Entitlement to Restoration of Rehabilitation Funds]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: B-232010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Whitman S. Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. The New White House Refrain: Please Hang Up and Dial Again. New York Times. 1993 Jan 29;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine - Open
AbbreviationSports Med. Open
ISSN (print)2199-1170
ISSN (online)2198-9761

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