How to format your references using the Sports Medicine - Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine - Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gammon K. Drug discovery: Leaving no stone unturned. Nature. 2014;509:S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bayer R, Colgrove J. Public health vs. civil liberties. Science. 2002;297:1811.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Redford KH, Jensen DB, Breheny JJ. Ecology. Integrating the captive and the wild. Science. 2012;338:1157–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Irie M, Fukaminato T, Sasaki T, Tamai N, Kawai T. Organic chemistry: a digital fluorescent molecular photoswitch. Nature. 2002;420:759–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shamsuddin M. Physical Chemistry of Metallurgical Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Gorenflo R. Mittag-Leffler Functions, Related Topics and Applications: Theory and Applications. Kilbas AA, Mainardi F, Rogosin SV, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kolaczyk ED, Csárdi G. Descriptive Analysis of Network Graph Characteristics. In: Csárdi G, editor. Statistical Analysis of Network Data with R. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 43–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine - Open.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. How Sex And Masturbation Could Lead To More Ebola Outbreaks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Financial Condition as of September 30, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: RCED-98-171R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Florio ML. Assessing the impacts of knowing natural team player styles on team satisfaction and cohesion [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Inquiry Into Pneumonia In Army. New York Times. 2004 Jan 16;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine - Open
AbbreviationSports Med. Open
ISSN (print)2199-1170
ISSN (online)2198-9761

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