How to format your references using the Infectious Diseases and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Diseases and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Andolfatto P. Adaptive evolution of non-coding DNA in Drosophila. Nature. 2005;437:1149–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pellettieri J, Seydoux G. Anterior-posterior polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila--PARallels and differences. Science. 2002;298:1946–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yoshida N, Omukai K, Hernquist L. Protostar formation in the early universe. Science. 2008;321:669–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Paul A, Bartels RA, Tobey R, Green H, Weiman S, Christov IP, et al. Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light. Nature. 2003;421:51–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Levander CF. Where is American Literature? Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
1. Cohen R. GUI Design for Android Apps. Wang T, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Harutyunyan A. A Fast Algorithm for Powerful Alliances in Trees. In: Wu W, Daescu O, editors. Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: 4th International Conference, COCOA 2010, Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, December 18-20, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Diseases and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 9 Awesome Things You Didn’t Know About Bill Nye The Science Guy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Enrollment and Attendance Reports in the Boston Public School System Are Substantially Accurate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jul. Report No.: HRD-76-146.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dixon LK. Tracing anthropogenic wastes: Detection of fluorescent optical brighteners in a gradient of natural organic matter fluorescence [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. A Usual Suspect Slips Into a Party Owned by Outsiders. New York Times. 2011 Mar 28;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Diseases and Therapy
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8229
ISSN (online)2193-6382
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles