How to format your references using the Infectious Diseases and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Diseases and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Climate change expert stirs new controversy. Nature. 2000;407:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sattler A, Parkin G. Cleaving carbon-carbon bonds by inserting tungsten into unstrained aromatic rings. Nature. 2010;463:523–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Danchin E, Wajnberg E, Wagner RH. Avoiding pitfalls in estimating heritability with the common options approach. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3974.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Reusch TB, Häberli MA, Aeschlimann PB, Milinski M. Female sticklebacks count alleles in a strategy of sexual selection explaining MHC polymorphism. Nature. 2001;414:300–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Takezawa K. Guidebook to R Graphics Using Microsoft® Windows. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Ferdinand J-P, Petschow U, Dickel S, editors. The Decentralized and Networked Future of Value Creation: 3D Printing and its Implications for Society, Industry, and Sustainable Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hansson SO. Evaluating the Uncertainties. In: Hansson SO, Hirsch Hadorn G, editors. The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis: Reasoning about Uncertainty. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Diseases and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. AI Repeatedly Beats Colonel In Aerial Combat Simulations. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: Concerns About the Acquisition Plan for DOD’s Composite Health Care System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Mar. Report No.: IMTEC-86-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chen G. Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Gives Employees Broader Protection Against Retaliation in Workplace. New York Times. 2006 Jun 23;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Diseases and Therapy
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8229
ISSN (online)2193-6382
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles