How to format your references using the Infectious Diseases and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Diseases and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. A’Hearn MF. The comet no one saw. Nature. 2000;405:285, 287.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Weston EM, Lister AM. Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis. Nature. 2009;459:85–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Debayle E, Kennett B, Priestley K. Global azimuthal seismic anisotropy and the unique plate-motion deformation of Australia. Nature. 2005;433:509–12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dean C, Leakey MG, Reid D, Schrenk F, Schwartz GT, Stringer C, et al. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature. 2001;414:628–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Summerhayes SD. CDM Regulations 2015 Procedures Manual. Chichester, UK: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Bennett G. Objective-C for Absolute Beginners: iPhone, iPad, and Mac Programming Made Easy. Fisher M, Lees B, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fairman D, Chigas D, McClintock E, Drager N. Meeting Implementation Challenges. In: Chigas D, McClintock E, Drager N, editors. Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 81–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Diseases and Therapy.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Metallic Glass Alloys Could Be Stronger Than Steel But As Malleable As Putty [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Pollution: EPA’s Efforts to Control Gasoline Vapors From Motor Vehicles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Oct. Report No.: RCED-90-21.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Long RE. Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. MacFARQUHAR N. Conspiracy Theories Mix With Somber Condolences. New York Times. 2015 Jan 13;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Diseases and Therapy
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8229
ISSN (online)2193-6382
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles