How to format your references using the Infectious Diseases and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Diseases and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Abbott NL. Applied physics. Colloid science collides with liquid crystals. Science. 2013;342:1326–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Davis PM, Jackson DD. Retrospective. Leon Knopoff (1925-2011). Science. 2011;331:1400.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pendry JB, Martín-Moreno L, Garcia-Vidal FJ. Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces. Science. 2004;305:847–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gregoryanz E, Lundegaard LF, McMahon MI, Guillaume C, Nelmes RJ, Mezouar M. Structural diversity of sodium. Science. 2008;320:1054–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fitzgerald RW, Meacham BJ. Fire Performance Analysis for Buildings. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Leong SPL, Kitagawa Y, Kitajima M, editors. Selective Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Human Solid Cancer. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Walker P. The Privileging of ‘Place’ Within South Australia’s Education Works. In: Corcoran T, White J, Whitburn B, editors. Disability Studies: Educating for Inclusion. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015. p. 75–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Diseases and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Scientists Confirm That The Global Warming “Pause” Never Existed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid: Data Not Fully Utilized to Identify Inappropriately Awarded Loans and Grants. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jul. Report No.: HEHS-95-89.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yendes DL. Remnants of Life [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. And Something for Your Dog as Well? New York Times. 1997 Nov 2;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Diseases and Therapy
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8229
ISSN (online)2193-6382
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles