How to format your references using the Infant Observation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infant Observation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heisenberg, M. (2009). Is free will an illusion? Nature, 459(7244), 164–165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levy-Lahad, E., & Plon, S. E. (2003). Cancer. A risky business--assessing breast cancer risk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5645), 574–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nazin, G. V., Qiu, X. H., & Ho, W. (2003). Visualization and spectroscopy of a metal-molecule-metal bridge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5642), 77–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Elden, A. C., Kim, H.-J., Hart, M. P., Chen-Plotkin, A. S., Johnson, B. S., Fang, X., … Gitler, A. D. (2010). Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS. Nature, 466(7310), 1069–1075.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, B., & Qiu, D. (2014). Sneak Circuits of Power Electronic Converters. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Feldman, L. S., Delaney, C. P., Ljungqvist, O., & Carli, F. (Eds.). (2015). The SAGES / ERAS® Society Manual of Enhanced Recovery Programs for Gastrointestinal Surgery (1st ed. 2015). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Peperzak, A. (2009). Sincerely Yours. Towards a Phenomenology of Me. In B. Hofmeyr (Ed.), Radical Passivity: Rethinking Ethical Agency in Levinas (pp. 55–66). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infant Observation.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 30). This Lacewing Bacterium Kills Only Males. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). School Vouchers: Publicly Funded Programs in Cleveland and Milwaukee (No. GAO-01-914). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LeBlanc, D. C. (2008). The relationship between Information Technology project manager personality type and project success (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, July 19). Fox Show Is Trump’s Two-Way Mirror. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heisenberg, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Heisenberg, 2009; Levy-Lahad & Plon, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levy-Lahad & Plon, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Nazin, Qiu, & Ho, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Elden et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfant Observation
ISSN (print)1369-8036
ISSN (online)1745-8943
ScopeApplied Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

Other styles