How to format your references using the Infant Observation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infant Observation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dever, T. E. (2012). Molecular biology. A new start for protein synthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1645–1646.
A journal article with 2 authors
Menon, A. K., & Levine, T. P. (2015). Cell biology: Countercurrents in lipid flow. Nature, 525(7568), 191–192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuster, J. M., Bodner, M., & Kroger, J. K. (2000). Cross-modal and cross-temporal association in neurons of frontal cortex. Nature, 405(6784), 347–351.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mauk, B. H., Mitchell, D. G., Krimigis, S. M., Roelof, E. C., & Paranicas, C. P. (2003). Energetic neutral atoms from a trans-Europa gas torus at Jupiter. Nature, 421(6926), 920–922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, S. V. (2006). Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wolanski, E. (Ed.). (2014). Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and beyond. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Antognini, A. B., Giovagnoli, A., Romano, D., & Zagoraiou, M. (2009). Computer Simulations for the Optimization of Technological Processes. In P. Erto (Ed.), Statistics for Innovation: Statistical Design of “Continuous” Product Innovation (pp. 65–88). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infant Observation.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, October 24). Potential For A Male Contraceptive Is One Step Closer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Space Industrialization Act of 1980 (112559). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden, A. (2012). Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seth Mydans; Erin, & Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article. (2004, September 6). Moscow’s Gloom Deepens As Fear Becomes Routine. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dever, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dever, 2012; Menon & Levine, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Menon & Levine, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Fuster et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mauk et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfant Observation
ISSN (print)1369-8036
ISSN (online)1745-8943
ScopeApplied Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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