How to format your references using the Infant Observation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infant Observation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R. (2001). Staffing shortage threatens Japan’s structural genomics. Nature, 410(6829), 724.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panchanathan, K., & Boyd, R. (2004). Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem. Nature, 432(7016), 499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pool, J. A., Lobkovsky, E., & Chirik, P. J. (2004). Hydrogenation and cleavage of dinitrogen to ammonia with a zirconium complex. Nature, 427(6974), 527–530.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Multani, D. S., Briggs, S. P., Chamberlin, M. A., Blakeslee, J. J., Murphy, A. S., & Johal, G. S. (2003). Loss of an MDR transporter in compact stalks of maize br2 and sorghum dw3 mutants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5642), 81–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner, J. (2005). Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schomburg, D., & Schomburg, I. (Eds.). (2006). Springer Handbook of Enzymes: Class 1 · Oxidoreductases X EC 1.9–1.13 (Second Edition, Vol. 25). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schuecker, C., & Pettermann, H. E. (2008). Combining Elastic Brittle Damage with Plasticity to Model the Non-linear behavior of Fiber Reinforced Laminates. In C. G. Dávila, S. T. Pinho, & J. J. C. Remmers (Eds.), Mechanical Response of Composites (pp. 99–117). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infant Observation.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, November 15). This Breathtaking Video Reveals How Humanity Took Over The World. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Multiple Teacher Training Programs: Information on Budgets, Services, and Target Groups (HEHS-95-71FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fanelli, R. M. (2017). Effects of Urbanization and Infiltration-Based Watershed Restoration on the Hydro-Ecology of Headwater Streams [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, June 9). Will He Let Loose the Hounds? New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Panchanathan & Boyd, 2004; Triendl, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Panchanathan & Boyd, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Pool et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Multani et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfant Observation
ISSN (print)1369-8036
ISSN (online)1745-8943
ScopeApplied Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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