How to format your references using the Infant Observation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infant Observation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, B. R. (2011). WHO needs change. Nature, 473(7346), 143–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bray, P. S., & Anderson, K. B. (2009). Identification of Carboniferous (320 million years old) class Ic amber. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5949), 132–134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C., de Grijs, R., & Deng, L. (2014). The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster. Nature, 516(7531), 367–369.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sorrells, S. F., Paredes, M. F., Cebrian-Silla, A., Sandoval, K., Qi, D., Kelley, K. W., James, D., Mayer, S., Chang, J., Auguste, K. I., Chang, E. F., Gutierrez, A. J., Kriegstein, A. R., Mathern, G. W., Oldham, M. C., Huang, E. J., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M., Yang, Z., & Alvarez-Buylla, A. (2018). Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults. Nature, 555(7696), 377–381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snell, R. S., & Lemp, M. A. (1997). Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Blackwell Science Ltd,.
An edited book
Leatham, K. R. (Ed.). (2013). Vital Directions for Mathematics Education Research. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lampeter, E. F. (2009). Strategic Positioning in Biotech: Where Innovation Can Save Lives. In E. E. Matthaei (Ed.), Strategies for Innovators: HHL Open School Case Book (pp. 47–65). Gabler.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infant Observation.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 26). These Bizarre Creatures Defy What We Think We Know About Plants And Animals. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Still Exist in the Aviation Security System (T-RCED/AIMD-00-142). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryan, J. D. (2009). Team development social networking and its impact on the encouragement of spiritual leadership [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S., & Alcindor, Y. (2017, January 22). Defiant Yet Jubilant Voices Flood U.S. Cities. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom, 2011; Bray & Anderson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bray & Anderson, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sorrells et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfant Observation
ISSN (print)1369-8036
ISSN (online)1745-8943
ScopeApplied Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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