How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Harris J. Soil microbial communities and restoration ecology: facilitators or followers? Science. 2009;325:573–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bercovici D, Ricard Y. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance. Nature. 2014;508:513–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Petta JR, Lu H, Gossard AC. A coherent beam splitter for electronic spin states. Science. 2010;327:669–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hyman SD, Lazio TJW, Kassim NE, Ray PS, Markwardt CB, Yusef-Zadeh F. A powerful bursting radio source towards the Galactic Centre. Nature. 2005;434:50–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ponniah P. Data Warehousing Fundamentals for it Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Cinquini L. Nuovi modelli di business e creazione di valore: la Scienza dei Servizi. Minin AD, Varaldo R, editors. Milano: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Castro Solano A, Aristegui I. Cultural Competences of International Students: Its Role on Successful Sociocultural and Psychological Adaptation. In: Castro Solano A, editor. Positive Psychology in Latin America. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 89–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Pandoraviruses: the giants of the virus world [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Testing: Current Extent and Expenditures, With Cost Estimates for a National Examination. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jan. Report No.: PEMD-93-8.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gambini F. Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. Reaching a U.S. Apex, With a Bronze Medal in Tow. New York Times. 2016 Aug 20;SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationIndian J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)0970-9134
ISSN (online)0973-7723
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles