How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Strong M (2005) Scientists and societies. Community outreach. Nature 434:418
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Zhou Z, Zhang F (2004) A precocial avian embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Science 306:653
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Verburg P, Hecky RE, Kling H (2003) Ecological consequences of a century of warming in Lake Tanganyika. Science 301:505–507
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Pan X, Wang G, Lay CL, et al (2013) Photoluminescence from amino-containing polymer in the presence of CO2: carbamato anion formed as a fluorophore. Sci Rep 3:2763

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Griffin PM, Nembhard HB, DeFlitch CJ, et al (2015) Healthcare Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Meeks S (2016) The Past and Future City: How Historic Preservation Is Reviving America’s Communities. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Raghavan P, Munaga S, Ramos ER, et al (2007) A Customized Cross-Bar for Data-Shuffling in Domain-Specific SIMD Processors. In: Lukowicz P, Thiele L, Tröster G (eds) Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K (2015) “Alien-Like” Creature Rescued. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/endangered-alien-sun-bear-has-been-rescued-update/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1976) Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies - Enclosure C. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Beck NA (2017) Mobile Apps for Cognitive Restructuring: A Review and Comparative Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW (2013) S.&P. Seeks Dismissal of U.S. Civil Suit Over Rating of Mortgage Debt. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationIndian J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0972-2068
ISSN (online)0973-9793
ScopeSurgery

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