How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pereira IAC (2013) Microbiology. An enzymatic route to H2 storage. Science 342:1329–1330
A journal article with 2 authors
Ban Y, Chen X (2014) Counter-diabatic driving for fast spin control in a two-electron double quantum dot. Sci Rep 4:6258
A journal article with 3 authors
Creed M, Pascoli VJ, Lüscher C (2015) Addiction therapy. Refining deep brain stimulation to emulate optogenetic treatment of synaptic pathology. Science 347:659–664
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bose S, Singh R, Hanewich-Hollatz M, et al (2013) Affinity flow fractionation of cells via transient interactions with asymmetric molecular patterns. Sci Rep 3:2329

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoy J (2015) Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Murrell DF (2015) Clinical Cases in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
From PJ, Gravdahl JT, Pettersen KY (2014) Kinematics of Vehicle-Manipulator Systems. In: Gravdahl JT, Pettersen KY (eds) Vehicle-Manipulator Systems: Modeling for Simulation, Analysis, and Control. Springer, London, pp 169–189

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Tool Use is Innate in Chimpanzees. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Budget Authority Rescission Proposals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tillman KA (2017) Constructing the Concept of Time: Roles of Perception, Language, and Culture. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J, Grynbaum MM, Maheshwari S (2017) Fox Pitches Sports to Advertisers, but Specter of Its News Scandal Lingers. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationIndian J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0972-2068
ISSN (online)0973-9793

Other styles