How to format your references using the Immunologic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunologic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. White SH. Biochemistry. Crowds of syntaxins. Science. 2007;317:1045–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Simpson SJ, Travis J. Testing our defenses. Science. 2007;317:611.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nielsen SB, Stephenson R, Thomsen E. Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations. Nature. 2007;450:1071–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sokoloski JL, Luna GJM, Mukai K, Kenyon SJ. An X-ray-emitting blast wave from the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi. Nature. 2006;442:276–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Maier H. Chemiker im „Dritten Reich“. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. Gopalakrishnan K, Khaitan SK, Kalogirou S, editors. Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rodriguez F, Bräuning A, Gerique A, Behling H, Volland F. Landscape History, Vegetation History, and Past Human Impacts. In: Bendix J, Beck E, Bräuning A, Makeschin F, Mosandl R, Scheu S, et al., editors. Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunologic Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Surprising Heat Tolerance In Some Corals May Provide Hope For The Future Of Reefs [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s Role in Major Airport Noise Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Apr. Report No.: RCED-00-98.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reich LM. Adapted physical education teachers’ attitudes towards their students with hidden and visible disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman J. Naked Mole Rats Survive Without Oxygen. New York Times. 2017 Apr 20;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunologic Research
AbbreviationImmunol. Res.
ISSN (print)0257-277X
ISSN (online)1559-0755

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