How to format your references using the Immunologic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunologic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tucker BE. Geophysics. Reducing earthquake risk. Science. 2013;341:1070–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tregenza T, Wedell N. Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. Nature. 2002;415:71–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nowak MA, Komarova NL, Niyogi P. Evolution of universal grammar. Science. 2001;291:114–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jaeger WL, Keszthelyi LP, McEwen AS, Dundas CM, Russell PS. Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system. Science. 2007;317:1709–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bejan A. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Zhou J-N. The Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. Rong-Jun N, editor. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kardel T, Maquet P. 3 In Paris and France 1664-1665. In: Kardel T, Maquet P, editors. Nicolaus Steno: Biography and Original Papers of a 17th Century Scientist. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 115–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunologic Research.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Blue Origin Successfully Tests Crew Escape System In Major Step Towards Flying Space Tourists [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transfer of Government-Owned Weather Satellites to Private Sector. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Jul. Report No.: B-210820.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ashrafzadeh MH. Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. More Than Moussaka. New York Times. 2010 Nov 28;NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunologic Research
AbbreviationImmunol. Res.
ISSN (print)0257-277X
ISSN (online)1559-0755

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