How to format your references using the Immunologic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunologic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Poffenroth M. My liberation through science. Science. 2015;347:98.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stroscio JA, Celotta RJ. Controlling the dynamics of a single atom in lateral atom manipulation. Science. 2004;306:242–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Booker JR, Favetto A, Pomposiello MC. Low electrical resistivity associated with plunging of the Nazca flat slab beneath Argentina. Nature. 2004;429:399–403.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jen Y-J, Lakhtakia A, Lin M-J, Wang W-H, Wu H-M, Liao H-S. Metal/dielectric/metal sandwich film for broadband reflection reduction. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1672.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hampel FR, Ronchetti EM, Rousseeuw PJ, Stahel WA. Robust Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Fine IH, Mojon DS, editors. Minimally Invasive Ophthalmic Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Anderson J. The China Monetary Policy Handbook. In: Barth JR, Tatom JA, Yago G, editors. China’s Emerging Financial Markets: Challenges and Opportunities. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 167–265.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunologic Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Hundreds Of Bats Are Being Killed By Wind Turbines In The UK Every Month. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Personnel: Shortages of Scientists and Engineers Due to Retirements Unlikely in the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-91-185.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Naro A. The effects of the structural components of 4-H residential summer programs on the achievement of the essential elements of positive youth development and the acquisition of targeted life skills [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Ex-Google Venture Capitalist Is Opening Fund of His Own. New York Times. 2017 May 16;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunologic Research
AbbreviationImmunol. Res.
ISSN (print)0257-277X
ISSN (online)1559-0755

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