How to format your references using the Immunobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watts, D.J., 2007. A twenty-first century science. Nature 445, 489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellegren, H., Sheldon, B.C., 2008. Genetic basis of fitness differences in natural populations. Nature 452, 169–175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tucker, W.C., Weber, T., Chapman, E.R., 2004. Reconstitution of Ca2+-regulated membrane fusion by synaptotagmin and SNAREs. Science 304, 435–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ishizuka, K., Kamiya, A., Oh, E.C., Kanki, H., Seshadri, S., Robinson, J.F., Murdoch, H., Dunlop, A.J., Kubo, K.-I., Furukori, K., Huang, B., Zeledon, M., Hayashi-Takagi, A., Okano, H., Nakajima, K., Houslay, M.D., Katsanis, N., Sawa, A., 2011. DISC1-dependent switch from progenitor proliferation to migration in the developing cortex. Nature 473, 92–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halloran, M., Thies, C., 2012. The Social Media Handbook for Financial Advisors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Leong, S.P.L. (Ed.), 2007. Cancer Metastasis And The Lymphovascular System: Basis For Rational Therapy, Cancer Treatment and Research. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Renna, P., Argoneto, P., 2011. Models for Coalition Management, in: Renna, P. (Ed.), Innovative Tools for Business Coalitions in B2B Applications: How Negotiation, Auction and Game Theory Can Support Small- and Medium-Sized Business in E-Business. Springer, London, pp. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunobiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Deer Oh Deer – A Baby That Fits In the Palm Of Your Hand [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL–-baby-fits-palm-your-hand/ (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Highway Needs: An Evaluation of DOT’s Process for Assessing the Nation’s Highway Needs (No. RCED-87-136). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horton, C.R., 2013. Financial crisis within the nonprofit sector (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2016. 3 Are Charged With Selling Ivory Objects Despite Ban. New York Times A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watts, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ellegren and Sheldon, 2008; Watts, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellegren and Sheldon, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishizuka et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunobiology
ISSN (print)0171-2985
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles