How to format your references using the Immunobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashrafian, H., 2015. Intelligent robots must uphold human rights. Nature 519, 391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dasgupta, R., Hirschmann, M.M., 2006. Melting in the Earth’s deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide. Nature 440, 659–662.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Dinger, K., Stein, R.S., Toda, S., 2010. Decay of aftershock density with distance does not indicate triggering by dynamic stress. Nature 467, 583–586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Galliou, S., Goryachev, M., Bourquin, R., Abbé, P., Aubry, J.P., Tobar, M.E., 2013. Extremely low loss phonon-trapping cryogenic acoustic cavities for future physical experiments. Sci. Rep. 3, 2132.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B.M., 2011. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Pugliese, A., Gaiti, A., Boiti, C. (Eds.), 2012. Veterinary Science: Current Aspects in Biology, Animal Pathology, Clinic and Food Hygiene. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hall, J.C., 2014. Cancer Patients and Skin Disease, in: Hall, J.C. (Ed.), Skin Diseases in the Immunocompromised. Springer, London, pp. 45–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunobiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. How To Capture The Violent Tumult Of Our Roiling Universe, Moment By Moment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Battlefield Automation: Better Justification and Testing Needed for Common Computer Acquisition (No. IMTEC-88-12). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karasik, B.A., 2015. Tele-collaboration in theatre: Collaboration mgmt tools in a digital and globalized age (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, S., 2017. There Goes the Gayborhood. New York Times F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ashrafian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ashrafian, 2015; Dasgupta and Hirschmann, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dasgupta and Hirschmann, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Galliou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunobiology
ISSN (print)0171-2985
Immunology and Allergy

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