How to format your references using the Immunobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. Eastern promises. Nature 422, 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Redman, B.K., Merz, J.F., 2008. Sociology. Scientific misconduct: do the punishments fit the crime? Science 321, 775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cira, N.J., Benusiglio, A., Prakash, M., 2015. Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets. Nature 519, 446–450.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Muscheler, R., Joos, F., Müller, S.A., Snowball, I., 2005. Climate: how unusual is today’s solar activity? Nature 436, E3-4; discussion E4-5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forsberg, K., Mansdorf, S.Z., 2005. Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Banerjee, M., Krishna, S.N. (Eds.), 2015. Logic and Its Applications: 6th Indian Conference, ICLA 2015, Mumbai, India, January 8-10, 2015. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, C., Maglinte, D., 2015. The Role of CTE/Barium Enteroclysis in Crohn’s Disease, in: Rajesh, A., Sinha, R. (Eds.), Crohn’s Disease: Current Concepts. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunobiology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Giant Bat Walked On All Fours 16 Million Years Ago in New Zealand [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Federal Lands: Information on the Use and Impact of Off-Highway Vehicles (No. RCED-95-209). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meeks, J.D., 2009. From the belly of the HUAC: The HUAC investigations of Hollywood, 1947–1952 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Peters, J.W., 2016. Diverse Group of Rookie Moderators Is Chosen for the Presidential Debates. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Redman and Merz, 2008; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Redman and Merz, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Muscheler et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunobiology
ISSN (print)0171-2985
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles