How to format your references using the Immunobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mouillet, D., 2004. Astronomy. Nearby planetary disks. Science 303, 1982–1983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, Y., Lisberger, S.G., 2014. Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration. Nature 510, 529–532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wall, D.H., Nielsen, U.N., Six, J., 2015. Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528, 69–76.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Elowitz, M.B., Levine, A.J., Siggia, E.D., Swain, P.S., 2002. Stochastic gene expression in a single cell. Science 297, 1183–1186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murray, A., 2015. The Complete Software Project Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meleard, S., 2015. Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Mathematical Biosciences Institute Lecture Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rinkevich, Y., Matranga, V., Rinkevich, B., 2009. Stem Cells in Aquatic Invertebrates: Common Premises and Emerging Unique Themes, in: Rinkevich, B., Matranga, V. (Eds.), Stem Cells in Marine Organisms. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 61–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunobiology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Lightning Strikes Can Alter Rock At The Atomic Level [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. National Science Foundation’s Actions on Recommendations of GAO Report “Opportunities for Improved Management of the Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Program” (No. HRD-77-54). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bottorff, E.A., 2011. The community college baccalaureate: A study of capital costs in Florida (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Thrush, G., Shear, M.D., Sullivan, E., 2017. Former General Taking Control At White House. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mouillet, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Mouillet, 2004; Yang and Lisberger, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Lisberger, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Elowitz et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunobiology
ISSN (print)0171-2985
Immunology and Allergy

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