How to format your references using the Immunobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kündig, P., 2006. Chemistry. The future of organic synthesis. Science 314, 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peacock, E., Garshelis, D.L., 2006. Comment on “On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” IV. Science 313, 45; author reply 45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, C., Bobisch, C.A., Ho, W., 2009. Visualization of Fermi’s golden rule through imaging of light emission from atomic silver chains. Science 325, 981–985.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fujita, S., Yamanoi, S., Murata, K., Mita, H., Samukawa, T., Nakagawa, T., Sakai, H., Tokita, Y., 2014. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode. Sci. Rep. 4, 4937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2003. Guidelines for Analyzing and Managing the Security Vulnerabilities of Fixed Chemical Sites. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wei, R. (Ed.), 2016. Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia: Private Chat to Public Communication, Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kar, S., Datta, D., 2015. Risk Sharing and Rent Sharing in the Labor Market, in: Datta, D. (Ed.), Industrial and Labor Economics: Issues in Developing and Transition Countries, India Studies in Business and Economics. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 87–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunobiology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Hikers Film A Beautiful Spinning Ice Disk On A Frozen River [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Problems and Outlook of Small Private Liberal Arts Colleges (No. HRD-78-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schluter, K.T., 2013. Hearing words without structure: Subliminal speech priming and the organization of the Moroccan Arabic lexicon (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2017. Ex-Prisoner Found Stability Before His Deadly Outburst. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kündig, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kündig, 2006; Peacock and Garshelis, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peacock and Garshelis, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Fujita et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunobiology
ISSN (print)0171-2985
Immunology and Allergy

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