How to format your references using the Image and Vision Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Image and Vision Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.B. Wilson, Immunology: Insulin auto-antigenicity in type 1 diabetes, Nature. 438 (2005) E5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.K. Polka, K.A. Krukenberg, Making science a desirable career, Science. 346 (2014) 1422.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.W. Tingley, L.D. Estes, D.S. Wilcove, Ecosystems: climate change must not blow conservation off course, Nature. 500 (2013) 271–272.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.A. Rosa, S.P. Tuler, B. Fischhoff, T. Webler, S.M. Friedman, R.E. Sclove, K. Shrader-Frechette, M.R. English, R.E. Kasperson, R.L. Goble, T.M. Leschine, W. Freudenburg, C. Chess, C. Perrow, K. Erikson, J.F. Short, Nuclear waste: knowledge waste?, Science. 329 (2010) 762–763.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.K. Anderson, Visual Data Mining, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
P. Dorey, The British Coalition Government, 2010-2015: A Marriage of Inconvenience, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
V.J. Coles, R.R. Hood, Approaches and Challenges for Linking Marine Biogeochemical Models with the “Omics” Revolution, in: P.M. Glibert, T.M. Kana (Eds.), Aquatic Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry: A Dual Perspective, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Image and Vision Computing.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Awesome Timelapse Shows You The Life Cycle Of A Butterfly, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Advanced Automation System: Implications of Problems and Recent Changes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.K. Morrison, Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport protein and energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T.N.Y. Times, What Else Is on the Ballot in the U.S.? Minimum Wage, Death Penalty and Guns, New York Times. (2016) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImage and Vision Computing
AbbreviationImage Vis. Comput.
ISSN (print)0262-8856
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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