How to format your references using the IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2003) French minister breaks diplomatic ice with visit to US. Nature, 422, 551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, S.Q. & Cull-Candy, S.G. (2000) Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature, 405, 454–458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldman, S.A., Nedergaard, M., & Windrem, M.S. (2012) Glial progenitor cell-based treatment and modeling of neurological disease. Science, 338, 491–495.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Narayanaswamy, N., Kumar, M., Das, S., Sharma, R., Samanta, P.K., Pati, S.K., Dhar, S.K., Kundu, T.K., & Govindaraju, T. (2014) A thiazole coumarin (TC) turn-on fluorescence probe for AT-base pair detection and multipurpose applications in different biological systems. Sci. Rep., 4, 6476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vorbrüggen, H. (2005) Silicon-Mediated Transformations of Functional Groups. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Korres, G.M. (2007) Regionalisation, Growth, and Economic Integration. , Contributions to Economics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Peña, T., Castrodeza, C., & Lara, P. (2007) Environmental Criteria in Pig Diet Formulation with Multi-Objective Fractional Programming. Handbook Of Operations Research In Natural Resources, International Series In Operations Research amp; Mana (Weintraub, A., Romero, C., Bjørndal, T., Epstein, R., & Miranda, J. eds). Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015) Plant Fungi Impact How Monarch Butterflies Fight Disease. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Surface Transportation: Efforts to Address Highway Congestion through Real-Time Traffic Information Systems Are Expanding but Face Implementation Challenges ( No. GAO-10-121R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander, M. (2009) Reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay, I.P. (1936) An Arraignment. New York Times, BOOKS20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Liu & Cull-Candy, 2000; Brumfiel, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu & Cull-Candy, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Narayanaswamy et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
AbbreviationIMA J. Numer. Anal.
ISSN (print)0272-4979
ISSN (online)1464-3642
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics

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