How to format your references using the IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGrew, W.C. (2010) Evolution. Chimpanzee technology. Science, 328, 579–580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, N.Z. & Jacobsen, E.N. (2012) Organic chemistry: catalysis in tight spaces. Nature, 483, 278–279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldberg, P., Berna, F., & Macphail, R.I. (2009) Comment on “DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America.” Science, 325, 148; author reply 148.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gumenyuk, R., Melkumov, M.A., Khopin, V.F., Dianov, E.M., & Okhotnikov, O.G. (2014) Effect of absorption recovery in bismuth-doped silica glass at 1450 nm on soliton grouping in fiber laser. Sci. Rep., 4, 7044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pachamanova, D.A. & Fabozzi, F.J. (2010) Simulation and Optimization in Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Opitz, D.L., Bergwik, S., & Tiggelen, B.V. (2016) Domesticity in the Making of Modern Science. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Van Dyke Parunak, H. (2011) Pheromones, Probabilities, and Multiple Futures. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XI: International Workshop, MABS 2010, Toronto, Canada, May 11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Bosse, T., Geller, A., & Jonker, C.M. eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 44–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016) How Long Would It Take You To Fall Through Earth? IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) NASA Personnel: Challenges to Achieving Workforce Reductions ( No. NSIAD-96-176). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chambers, S. (2008) Telecommunications megamergers: Impact on employee morale and turnover intention (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. (2017) Prudence or Power Grab? Cuomo Adds Troopers to New York City. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGrew, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (McGrew, 2010; Burns & Jacobsen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burns & Jacobsen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Gumenyuk et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
AbbreviationIMA J. Numer. Anal.
ISSN (print)0272-4979
ISSN (online)1464-3642
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics

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