How to format your references using the IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes, D.K. (2001) Resource availability: Ancient homes for hard-up hermit crabs. Nature, 412, 785–786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giles, J. & Knight, J. (2003) Dolly’s death leaves researchers woolly on clone ageing issue. Nature, 421, 776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pagel, M., Venditti, C., & Meade, A. (2006) Large punctuational contribution of speciation to evolutionary divergence at the molecular level. Science, 314, 119–121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Singh, S.K., Hawkins, C., Clarke, I.D., Squire, J.A., Bayani, J., Hide, T., Henkelman, R.M., Cusimano, M.D., & Dirks, P.B. (2004) Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature, 432, 396–401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, S.H. (2006) ESD. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Choudhary, D.K., Varma, A., & Tuteja, N. (2016) Plant-Microbe Interaction: An Approach to Sustainable Agriculture. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Akesson, B. & Goossens, K. (2012) Resource Arbitration. Memory Controllers for Real-Time Embedded Systems: Predictable and Composable Real-Time Systems, Embedded Systems (Goossens, K. ed). New York, NY: Springer, pp. 105–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015) We’ll All be Getting an Extra Second in 2015. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Telecommunications: Metropolitan Area Acquisition Program Implementation and Management ( No. GAO-01-798T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obidos, C. (2015) Attitudes toward and knowledge of advance directives: A quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B. (2017) Tax Reform for the Wealthy: Lower Rates but Lose Breaks. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barnes, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Barnes, 2001; Giles & Knight, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giles & Knight, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Singh et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleIMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
AbbreviationIMA J. Numer. Anal.
ISSN (print)0272-4979
ISSN (online)1464-3642
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics

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