How to format your references using the Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagla P. INDIA: Disease Data Stolen in Lab Break-In. Science. 2000 Dec 1;290(5497):1668b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minetti AE, Ardigó LP. Halteres used in ancient Olympic long jump. Nature. 2002 Nov 14;420(6912):141–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer DL, Berner RA, Park J. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. Nature. 2007 Mar 29;446(7135):530–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saldivar JC, Hamperl S, Bocek MJ, Chung M, Bass TE, Cisneros-Soberanis F, et al. An intrinsic S/G2 checkpoint enforced by ATR. Science. 2018 Aug 24;361(6404):806–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Varrall G. Making Telecoms Work. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Wolff L, editor. Real Photo Postcards: Unbelievable Images from the Collection of Harvey Tulcensky. New York, NY: Princeton Archit. Press; 2005. 207 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kharbat F, Odeh M, Bull L. Knowledge Discovery from Medical Data: An Empirical Study with XCS. In: Bull L, Bernadó-Mansilla E, Holmes J, editors. Learning Classifier Systems in Data Mining. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 93–121. (Kacprzyk J, editor. Studies in Computational Intelligence).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew D. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Watch What Happens When You Put A Red-Hot Nickel Ball On Ice. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Informing Our Nation: Improving How to Understand and Assess the USA’s Position and Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Nov. Report No.: GAO-05-1.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusenberry W. Integrating depth psychology in adolescent court-mandated treatment facilities: Increasing treatment efficacy and client engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Reject F.B.I. Translator’s Appeal on Termination. New York Times. 2005 Nov 29;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes
ISSN (print)0012-1797
ISSN (online)1939-327X
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles