How to format your references using the Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Biotech’s balancing act. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zahn M, von Storch H. Decreased frequency of North Atlantic polar lows associated with future climate warming. Nature. 2010 Sep 16;467(7313):309–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith MA, Brandt J, Shadmehr R. Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769):544–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Calfon M, Zeng H, Urano F, Till JH, Hubbard SR, Harding HP, et al. IRE1 couples endoplasmic reticulum load to secretory capacity by processing the XBP-1 mRNA. Nature. 2002 Jan 3;415(6867):92–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic SG. Advanced Wireless Communications & Internet. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Guy TV, Karny M, Wolpert D, editors. Decision Making and Imperfection. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XV, 187 p. 72 illus., 24 illus. in color. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 474).
A chapter in an edited book
Smyth M. Energy Flows in Winemaking Facilities. In: Russell J, Milanowski T, editors. Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry. London: Springer; 2011. p. 111–240. (Green Energy and Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew E. Two New Materials Mimic Octopus-Like Camouflage [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Efforts to Implement Flight Operational Quality Assurance Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Dec. Report No.: RCED-98-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabone B. Knowledge and awareness of the Female Athlete Triad among female collegiate athletes at California State University, Long Beach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD. Trump Halted Chemical Attack, Officials Say. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes
ISSN (print)0012-1797
ISSN (online)1939-327X
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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