How to format your references using the Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salo H. Astronomy. Twisted disks. Science. 2011 May 6;332(6030):672–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xue Y, Sherman DH. Alternative modular polyketide synthase expression controls macrolactone structure. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769):571–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng X, Zhang R, Huang H. Theoretical modeling of relative humidity on contact electrification of sand particles. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 18;4:4399.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barone C, Romeo F, Pagano S, Adamo M, Nappi C, Sarnelli E, et al. Probing transport mechanisms of BaFe₂As₂ superconducting films and grain boundary junctions by noise spectroscopy. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 22;4:6163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Negre E. Information and Recommender Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Nurse CA, Gonzalez C, Peers C, Prabhakar N, editors. Arterial Chemoreception: From Molecules to Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. XXIV, 406 p. 62 illus., 30 illus. in color. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; vol. 758).
A chapter in an edited book
Hess L. The Meaning of Normativity of Meaning. In: Araszkiewicz M, Banaś P, Gizbert-Studnicki T, Płeszka K, editors. Problems of Normativity, Rules and Rule-Following. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 57–66. (Law and Philosophy Library).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes.

Blog post
Hale T. “Earth As Art” Series Reveals The Beauty Of Our Planet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Magellan Mission to Venus. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 May. Report No.: NSIAD-88-130FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shina YE. Youth under the care of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems: A grant proposal for crossover youth [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Tennessee Set to Drop Tax. New York Times. 2014 Apr 8;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes
ISSN (print)0012-1797
ISSN (online)1939-327X
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles