How to format your references using the Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White MF. Insulin signaling in health and disease. Science. 2003 Dec 5;302(5651):1710–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stahley MR, Strobel SA. Structural evidence for a two-metal-ion mechanism of group I intron splicing. Science. 2005 Sep 2;309(5740):1587–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak MA, Komarova NL, Niyogi P. Evolution of universal grammar. Science. 2001 Jan 5;291(5501):114–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mali SS, Kim H, Shim CS, Patil PS, Kim JH, Hong CK. Surfactant free most probable TiO₂ nanostructures via hydrothermal and its dye sensitized solar cell properties. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 21;3:3004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Camman C, Fiore C, Livolsi L, Querro P. Supply Chain Management and Business Performance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Dörfler P. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting. Sick M, Coutu A, editors. London: Springer; 2013. XXIV, 244 p.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Alessandro C, Léautier F. Spaces of Leadership: The Weight of Location and Leadership Density in Spaces. In: Léautier F, editor. Cities and Spaces of Leadership: A Geographical Perspective. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 77–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes.

Blog post
Hale T. The Science Of Infidelity [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Results Act: Using Agency Performance Plans to Oversee Early Childhood Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: T-HEHS-99-93.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Springborn T. The Importance of Teacher/Student Relationships [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Clinton Myth of Nonideological Politics Stumbles. New York Times. 1993 Jun 6;126.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes
ISSN (print)0012-1797
ISSN (online)1939-327X
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles