How to format your references using the Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goroff NS. Chemistry.A clear path for polymer crystallization. Science. 2014 Jan 17;343(6168):258–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mas-Ballesté R, Que L Jr. Chemistry. Targeting specific C-H bonds for oxidation. Science. 2006 Jun 30;312(5782):1885–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruhn D, Groebner N, Kohlstedt DL. An interconnected network of core-forming melts produced by shear deformation. Nature. 2000 Feb 24;403(6772):883–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Diemand J, Kuhlen M, Madau P, Zemp M, Moore B, Potter D, et al. Clumps and streams in the local dark matter distribution. Nature. 2008 Aug 7;454(7205):735–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chakrabarty P. A Guide to Academia. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Kumar S. Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks. Gulati R, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014. XXI, 323 p. 18 illus. (India Studies in Business and Economics).
A chapter in an edited book
Hillebrenner MG, Chen EA, Faris OP, O’Callaghan KM. The FDA Perspective on Heart Failure Devices. In: Maisel WH, editor. Device Therapy in Heart Failure. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2009. p. 89–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Turn to YouTube to Understand Chelyabinsk Asteroid Impact [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Near-Term Effort to Automate Paper-Based Immigration Files Needs Planning Improvements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Mar. Report No.: GAO-06-375.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klein J. Mississippian Space and Place: A Geographical Study of Archaeological Site Data in the American Bottom [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A World Where Only Black People Have Superpowers. New York Times. 2017 Jul 31;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes
ISSN (print)0012-1797
ISSN (online)1939-327X
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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