How to format your references using the iForest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for iForest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Menzel D (2002). Surface science. Water on a metal surface. Science (New York, N.Y.). 295: 58–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bollinger JM Jr, Matthews ML (2010). Biochemistry. Remote enzyme microsurgery. Science (New York, N.Y.). 327: 1337–1338.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Polanen V, Bergmann Tiest WM, Kappers AML (2014). Target contact and exploration strategies in haptic search. Scientific Reports. 4: 6254.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gonzalez F, Delahodde A, Kodadek T, Johnston SA (2002). Recruitment of a 19S proteasome subcomplex to an activated promoter. Science (New York, N.Y.). 296: 548–550.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cragg PJ (2006). A Practical Guide to Supramolecular Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Haubold HJ, Mathai AM (Eds.) (2010). Proceedings of the Third UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. VIII, 190 p. 17 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Helke G, Lubitz K (2008). Piezoelectric PZT Ceramics. In: Piezoelectricity: Evolution and Future of a Technology (K Lubitz, W Wersing eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for iForest.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015, January 11). Many People Use Drugs – But Here’s Why Most Don’t Become Addicts. Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Information and Technology Management: Achieving Sustained and Focused Governmentwide Leadership No. GAO-01-583T. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores D (2014). The EastSide Café: A liberated learning zone Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, Mueller B (2015, June 27). Escaped Killer Is Fatally Shot in New York. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Menzel 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Menzel 2002, Bollinger & Matthews 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bollinger & Matthews 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gonzalez et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleiForest
ISSN (print)1971-7458
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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