How to format your references using the iForest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for iForest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dajani R (2012). How women scientists fare in the Arab world. Nature. 491: 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takeuchi JK, Bruneau BG (2009). Directed transdifferentiation of mouse mesoderm to heart tissue by defined factors. Nature. 459: 708–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ (2001). Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms. Nature. 411: 1068–1073.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peckham RK, Brill R, Foster DS, Bowen AL, Leigh JA, Coffey TJ, Flynn RJ (2014). Two distinct populations of bovine IL-17+ T-cells can be induced and WC1+IL-17+γδ T-cells are effective killers of protozoan parasites. Scientific Reports. 4: 5431.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Natsuno T (2005). i-Mode Strategy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhang Y (aimee) (Ed.) (2015). Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 233 illus., 215 illus. in color. eReference.
A chapter in an edited book
Khraiche D, Pellerin D (2009). Tissue Doppler, Doppler Strain, and Non-Doppler Strain: Tips, Limitations, and Applications. In: Echocardiography (P Nihoyannopoulos, J Kisslo eds). Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for iForest.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014, August 7). New Test Detects Fatal Brain Disease Earlier And More Accurately Than Previous Methods. Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Army Aviation Requirements No. NSIAD-96-81R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abdeljaber SR (2015). High school mathematics teachers’ perceptions of mathematics education in northwest Florida Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2015, July 12). Giving Archie a Makeover at 74. New York Times, p. AR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dajani 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Takeuchi & Bruneau 2009, Dajani 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Takeuchi & Bruneau 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Peckham et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleiForest
ISSN (print)1971-7458
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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