How to format your references using the iForest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for iForest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ritson D (2003). Fuel for thought. Nature. 421: 575–576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Artursson P, Knight SD (2015). Structural biology. Breaking the intestinal barrier to deliver drugs. Science (New York, N.Y.). 347: 716–717.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohse D, Schmitz B, Versluis M (2001). Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles. Nature. 413: 477–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morris MC, Kaiser P, Rudyak S, Baskerville C, Watson MH, Reed SI (2003). Cks1-dependent proteasome recruitment and activation of CDC20 transcription in budding yeast. Nature. 423: 1009–1013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondoz AM (2006). Digital Speech. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Trappl R (Ed.) (2015). A Construction Manual for Robots’ Ethical Systems: Requirements, Methods, Implementations. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 1st ed. 2015, pp. VIII, 210 p. 22 illus., 17 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Chruszcz-Lipska K, Blanch EW (2014). Raman Optical Activity of Biological Samples. In: Optical Spectroscopy and Computational Methods in Biology and Medicine (M Baranska ed). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for iForest.

Blog post
Davis J (2016, December 19). Roads Have Cut Up The World’s Wilderness Into 600,000 Fragments. Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983). NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California No. AFMD-83-40. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manandhar R (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Dinitrosyl Diphosphine Iron Complexes Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J (2016, December 13). Stage Craft. New York Times, p. MM15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ritson 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ritson 2003, Artursson & Knight 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Artursson & Knight 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Morris et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleiForest
ISSN (print)1971-7458
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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