How to format your references using the iForest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for iForest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M (2012). Biorepositories: Building better biobanks. Nature. 486: 141–146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Plous S, Herzog H (2001). Animal research. Reliability of protocol reviews for animal research. Science (New York, N.Y.). 293: 608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanjeem N, Kawazoe T, Yatsui T (2013). CO2 phonon mode renormalization using phonon-assisted energy up-conversion. Scientific Reports. 3: 3341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Calamia V, Mateos J, Fernández-Puente P, Lourido L, Rocha B, Fernández-Costa C, Montell E, Vergés J, Ruiz-Romero C, Blanco FJ (2014). A pharmacoproteomic study confirms the synergistic effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine. Scientific Reports. 4: 5069.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrow E, Boaz A, Brearley S, Ross F (2011). Handbook of Service User Involvement in Nursing and Healthcare Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Cameron D (2016). Gender, Power and Political Speech: Women and Language in the 2015 UK General Election. (S. Shaw, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. IX, 140 p. 15 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Ullmann J (2014). Fuels. In: Diesel Engine Management: Systems and Components (K Reif ed). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for iForest.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015, April 16). Astronomers Searched 100,000 Galaxies For Signs Of Advanced Alien Civilizations. Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Army Training: Expenditures for Troop Schools Have Not Been Justified No. NSIAD-93-172. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinley KJ (2009). Exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of teacher selection tools: The effects on the total group with a focus on the experience sub-groups Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2008, April 13). Pancakes: Yours, Any Of 100 Ways. New York Times, p. NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Plous & Herzog 2001, Baker 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Plous & Herzog 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Calamia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleiForest
ISSN (print)1971-7458
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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