How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2009). “Climate future.” Nature, 459(7247), 628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sacco, T., and Sacchetti, B. (2010). “Role of secondary sensory cortices in emotional memory storage and retrieval in rats.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5992), 649–656.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ross, R. J., Weiner, M. M., and Lin, H. (2014). “PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs in the soma.” Nature, 505(7483), 353–359.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meredith, R. W., Janečka, J. E., Gatesy, J., Ryder, O. A., Fisher, C. A., Teeling, E. C., Goodbla, A., Eizirik, E., Simão, T. L. L., Stadler, T., Rabosky, D. L., Honeycutt, R. L., Flynn, J. J., Ingram, C. M., Steiner, C., Williams, T. L., Robinson, T. J., Burk-Herrick, A., Westerman, M., Ayoub, N. A., Springer, M. S., and Murphy, W. J. (2011). “Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6055), 521–524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson, R. L. (2016). Trading on Sentiment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Navarro, R., Yubero, S., and Larrañaga, E. (Eds.). (2016). Cyberbullying Across the Globe: Gender, Family, and Mental Health. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lucas, G. R. (2014). “Permissible Preventive Cyberwar: Restricting Cyber Conflict to Justified Military Targets.” The Ethics of Information Warfare, Law, Governance and Technology Series, L. Floridi and M. Taddeo, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 73–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016). “What Your Mindless Daily Habits Reveal About You According To Science.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Campaign Finance Reform: Experiences of Two States That Offered Full Public Funding for Political Candidates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons, C. I. (2017). “A Logistic Regression Analysis of Multiple Independent Variables Impacting Psychiatric Readmissions.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., and Story, L. (2013). “A Stealthy Subsidy Aiding Big Businesses Is Growing.” New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston 2009; Sacco and Sacchetti 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sacco and Sacchetti 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Meredith et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

Other styles