How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill, L. A. J. (2011). “Plant science. Innate immunity in plants goes to the PUB.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6036), 1386–1387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anversa, P., and Nadal-Ginard, B. (2002). “Myocyte renewal and ventricular remodelling.” Nature, 415(6868), 240–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse, G. W., Goffredi, S. K., and Vrijenhoek, R. C. (2004). “Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5684), 668–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mali, S. S., Kim, H., Shim, C. S., Patil, P. S., Kim, J. H., and Hong, C. K. (2013). “Surfactant free most probable TiO₂ nanostructures via hydrothermal and its dye sensitized solar cell properties.” Scientific reports, 3, 3004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kushner, R., Lawrence, V., and Kumar, S. (2013). Practical Manual of Clinical Obesity. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Rondo-Brovetto, P., and Saliterer, I. (Eds.). (2011). The University as a Business? VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Groves, W., Collins, J., Ketter, W., and Gini, M. (2011). “Analyzing Market Interactions in a Multi-agent Supply Chain Environment.” Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business: 8th Workshop on E-Business, WEB 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA, December 15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, R. Sharman, H. R. Rao, and T. S. Raghu, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 44–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). “Does Taking Antidepressants During Pregnancy Harm The Child? Here Are The Facts.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <; (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Surface Effect Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vande Voort, P. S. (2013). “A phenomenological exploration of faculty experiences using lecture capture systems.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017). “Sketching an Artistic Love Triangle.” New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Anversa and Nadal-Ginard 2002; O’Neill 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anversa and Nadal-Ginard 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mali et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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