How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Girardi, L. (2014). “Astronomy. One good cosmic measure.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6200), 1001–1002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharma, P., and Allison, J. P. (2015). “The future of immune checkpoint therapy.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6230), 56–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGinty, R. K., Henrici, R. C., and Tan, S. (2014). “Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the nucleosome.” Nature, 514(7524), 591–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pedersen, B. P., Buch-Pedersen, M. J., Morth, J. P., Palmgren, M. G., and Nissen, P. (2007). “Crystal structure of the plasma membrane proton pump.” Nature, 450(7172), 1111–1114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dodson, B., Hammett, P. C., and Klerx, R. (2014). Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Putinar, M., and Sullivant, S. (Eds.). (2009). Emerging Applications of Algebraic Geometry. The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications, Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Shaker, N., Togelius, J., and Nelson, M. J. (2016). “Fractals, noise and agents with applications to landscapes.” Procedural Content Generation in Games, Computational Synthesis and Creative Systems, J. Togelius and M. J. Nelson, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016). “Phasing Out Fossil Fuels For Renewables May Not Be A Straightforward Swap.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <; (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Strategic Bombers: Logistics Decisions Impede B-1B Readiness and Supportability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kinney, C. E. (2009). “Realtime controller tuning for periodic disturbance rejection with application to active noise control.” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006). “13 Hospitals to Remove Trans Fats From Meals.” New York Times, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Girardi 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Girardi 2014; Sharma and Allison 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharma and Allison 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pedersen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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