How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. 2012. “Physics masterclass.” Nature, 490 (7419): S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caruthers, M., and R. Wells. 2011. “Retrospective. Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011).” Science, 334 (6062): 1511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldi, C., S. Cho, and R. E. Ellis. 2009. “Mutations in two independent pathways are sufficient to create hermaphroditic nematodes.” Science, 326 (5955): 1002–1005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Griffin, C. T., Y. Srinivasan, Y. W. Zheng, W. Huang, and S. R. Coughlin. 2001. “A role for thrombin receptor signaling in endothelial cells during embryonic development.” Science, 293 (5535): 1666–1670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rogstad, D. H., A. Mileant, and T. T. Pham. 2005. Antenna Arraying Techniques in the Deep Space Network. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jameson, J. H., and J. Eogan (Eds.). 2013. Training and Practice for Modern Day Archaeologists. One World Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chin, A., and C. Juhn. 2011. “Does Reducing College Costs Improve Educational Outcomes for Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from State Laws Permitting Undocumented Immigrants to Pay In-State Tuition at State Colleges and Universities.” Latinos and the Economy: Integration and Impact in Schools, Labor Markets, and Beyond, D. L. Leal and S. J. Trejo, eds., 63–94. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. “World’s Most Lifelike Bionic Hand Developed.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Guaranteed Student Loans: Credit Bureau Reporting Practices by Guaranty Agencies and Lenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lapizco-Encinas, G. C. 2009. “Cooperative particle swarm optimization for combinatorial problems.” Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fitzsimmons, E. G. 2014. “For Families, Memories Mix With Fading Hope.” New York Times, March 9, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Caruthers and Wells 2011; Grayson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caruthers and Wells 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Griffin et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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