How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. 2000. “The economic impact of Silicon Valley’s immigrant entrepreneurs.” Nature, 405 (6786): 598.
A journal article with 2 authors
Canup, R. M., and E. Asphaug. 2001. “Origin of the Moon in a giant impact near the end of the Earth’s formation.” Nature, 412 (6848): 708–712.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merritt, J. M., V. E. Bondybey, and M. C. Heaven. 2009. “Beryllium dimer--caught in the act of bonding.” Science, 324 (5934): 1548–1551.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bizzarro, M., J. A. Baker, H. Haack, D. Ulfbeck, and M. Rosing. 2003. “Early history of Earth’s crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites.” Nature, 421 (6926): 931–933.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gup, B. E. 2011. Banking and Financial Institutions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Armon, R. H., and O. Hänninen (Eds.). 2015. Environmental Indicators. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Poels, G., F. Gailly, A. Maes, and R. Paemeleire. 2005. “Object Class or Association Class? Testing the User Effect on Cardinality Interpretation.” Perspectives in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2005 Workshops AOIS, BP-UML, CoMoGIS, eCOMO, and QoIS, Klagenfurt, Austria, October 24-28, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, J. Akoka, S. W. Liddle, I.-Y. Song, M. Bertolotto, I. Comyn-Wattiau, W.-J. van D. Heuvel, M. Kolp, J. Trujillo, C. Kop, and H. C. Mayr, eds., 33–42. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. “Unravelling The Mysteries Of Sleep: How The Brain ‘Sees’ Dreams.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. GSA: Causes of Delay in the Federal Communications Commission Move to the Portals II Building. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, H. A. 2017. “Virtual Mate Poaching: A study of the tactics used to poach a potential mate on Social Networking Sites.” Doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017. “Lorde Makes Her Way To the Top of Chart.” New York Times, June 26, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Canup and Asphaug 2001; Gershon 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Canup and Asphaug 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bizzarro et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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