How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pickett, G. (2000). “Superfluidity. A new twist to an old story.” Nature, 404(6777), 450–451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koentges, G., and Matsuoka, T. (2002). “Evolution. Jaws of the fates.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5592), 371–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mottram, D. S., Wedzicha, B. L., and Dodson, A. T. (2002). “Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction.” Nature, 419(6906), 448–449.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S. J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., and Matter, A. (2003). “Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1737–1739.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kagan, E., and Ben-Gal, I. (2013). Probabilistic Search for Tracking Targets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Brazil, M. (2015). Optimal Interconnection Trees in the Plane: Theory, Algorithms and Applications. Algorithms and Combinatorics, (M. Zachariasen, ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Shtukenberg, A., and Punin, Y. O. (2007). “Heterogeneous Crystals.” Optically Anomalous Crystals, Y. O. Punin and B. Kahr, eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 163–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). “Astronomers Have Spotted Something Very, Very Strange Surrounding A Distant Star.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Tank Recovery Vehicle: Status of Program Acquisition and Full-Scale Engineering Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pettengill, J. B. (2010). “Elucidating the macro- and micro-evolutionary relationships of the federally listed endangered species Agalinis acuta (Orobanchaceae).” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (1999). “HARVARD 37, FORDHAM 30.” New York Times, 83.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fine 2014; Meyerowitz 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koentges and Matsuoka 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Colantonio et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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