How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T. 2003. “Scanning the surface.” Nature, 425 (6960): 873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, J., and D. Marsan. 2003. “Three-dimensional mapping of dislocation avalanches: clustering and space/time coupling.” Science, 299 (5603): 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werlen, G., B. Hausmann, and E. Palmer. 2000. “A motif in the alphabeta T-cell receptor controls positive selection by modulating ERK activity.” Nature, 406 (6794): 422–426.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Denver, D. R., K. Morris, M. Lynch, and W. K. Thomas. 2004. “High mutation rate and predominance of insertions in the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear genome.” Nature, 430 (7000): 679–682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). 2011. Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Destexhe, A. 2012. Neuronal Noise. Springer Series in Computational Neuroscience, (M. Rudolph-Lilith, ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Toben, T., S. Eilers, C. Kuka, S. Schweigert, H. Winkelmann, and S. Ruehrup. 2012. “Safe Autonomous Transport Vehicles in Heterogeneous Outdoor Environments.” Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: International Workshops, SARS 2011 and MLSC 2011, Held Under the Auspices of ISoLA 2011 in Vienna, Austria, October 17-18, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science, R. Hähnle, J. Knoop, T. Margaria, D. Schreiner, and B. Steffen, eds., 61–75. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. “What If Other Planets Had Our Moon’s Orbit?” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1966. The Audit Function in the Automatic Data Processing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, M. P. 2009. “De la página a la pantalla: Memoria de la Guerra Civil española en la narrativa contemporánea.” Doctoral dissertation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. 2016. “Vintage ‘Glass Menagerie’ Performance Will Return to Air.” New York Times, December 7, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2003; Weiss and Marsan 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss and Marsan 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Denver et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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