How to format your references using the Journal of Infrastructure Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infrastructure Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ory, J. (2004). “Scientists and societies. Two-body problem.” Nature, 429(6993), 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Settembre, C., and Ballabio, A. (2014). “Cell metabolism: autophagy transcribed.” Nature, 516(7529), 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roche, D., Paillard, D., and Cortijo, E. (2004). “Constraints on the duration and freshwater release of Heinrich event 4 through isotope modelling.” Nature, 432(7015), 379–382.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Y., Liu, X.-P., Ling, X.-H., Li, J.-Q., Yang, W.-W., Zhang, D.-K., Li, L.-H., and Yang, Y. (2014). “Mapping brain injury with symmetrical-channels’ EEG signal analysis--a pilot study.” Scientific reports, 4, 5023.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthys, W., and Lochman, J. E. (2016). Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Pólya, G. (2010). Notes on Introductory Combinatorics. Modern Birkhäuser Classics, (R. E. Tarjan and D. R. Woods, eds.), Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Trobaugh, J. J., and Lowe, M. (2012). “When Things Go Wrong.” Winning LEGO MINDSTORMS Programming, M. Lowe, ed., Apress, Berkeley, CA, 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infrastructure Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). “The Autonomous Killing Systems Of The Future Are Already Here, They’re Just Not Necessarily Weapons – Yet.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Cloud Computing: Agencies Need to Incorporate Key Practices to Ensure Effective Performance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutter-Thomas, S. (2017). “Sociocultural Evolution: An Examination of Unorthodox Elective Body Modification.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017). “Saudi Arabia to Rescind Ban on Female Drivers.” New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ory 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ory 2004; Settembre and Ballabio 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Settembre and Ballabio 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infrastructure Systems
AbbreviationJ. Infrastruct. Syst.
ISSN (print)1076-0342
ISSN (online)1943-555X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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