How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. A. Fuhrman, “Microbial community structure and its functional implications,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7244, pp. 193–199, May 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. B. Singleton and B. J. Traynor, “Genetics. For complex disease genetics, collaboration drives progress,” Science, vol. 347, no. 6229, pp. 1422–1423, Mar. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Z. Coyte, J. Schluter, and K. R. Foster, “The ecology of the microbiome: Networks, competition, and stability,” Science, vol. 350, no. 6261, pp. 663–666, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Matsuda et al., “Cbln1 is a ligand for an orphan glutamate receptor delta2, a bidirectional synapse organizer,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5976, pp. 363–368, Apr. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. M. Peinado and J. C. Segura, Speech Recognition Over Digital Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
L. Mazerolle, Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Policing. in SpringerBriefs in Criminology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Desnica, L. Živanov, O. Aleksić, M. Luković, and L. Lukić, “The Design of Optimised Planar Thick Film Filters,” in Computer Engineering in Applied Electromagnetism, S. Wiak, A. Krawczyk, and M. Trlep, Eds., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005, pp. 31–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Crowdsourcing The Serengeti: How Citizen Scientists Classified Millions Of Photos From Home,” IFLScience, Jun. 09, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Concerns Over Labor’s Ability To Implement the Job Training Partnership Act,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-85-61, Apr. 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. A. Johnson, “Job satisfaction in the operating room: An analysis of the cultural competence of nurses,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Cowley, “Tally of Suspect Accounts at Wells Fargo Grows by 1.4 Million,” New York Times, p. B1, Aug. 31, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst.
ISSN (print)1063-8210
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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