How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Koenig, “Profile. South Africa’s bone man: 80 and still digging into the past,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5748, pp. 608–609, Oct. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. S. Fisher and H. E. Hoekstra, “Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7282, pp. 801–803, Feb. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.-M. Neutel, J. A. P. Heesterbeek, and P. C. De Ruiter, “Stability in real food webs: weak links in long loops,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5570, pp. 1120–1123, May 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. T. Hark, C. J. Schoenherr, D. J. Katz, R. S. Ingram, J. M. Levorse, and S. M. Tilghman, “CTCF mediates methylation-sensitive enhancer-blocking activity at the H19/Igf2 locus,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6785, pp. 486–489, May 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Pepper and M. J. Oliver, The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
D. Kessel and C. Ray, Eds., Transcatheter Embolization and Therapy. London: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Yamamoto, A. Kamiya, and J. Ando, “Shear Stress Rapidly Alters the Physical Properties of Vascular Endothelial Cell Membranes by Decreasing Their Lipid Order and Increasing Their Fluidity,” in XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013: MEDICON 2013, 25-28 September 2013, Seville, Spain, L. M. Roa Romero, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 19–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Solving The Puzzle Of Sea-Level Rise By Reexamining The Past,” IFLScience, Jan. 16, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Management of Northeast Corridor Improvements Demonstrates Need for Applying Best Practices,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-94, Feb. 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. LeBlanc, “Group home placement for children with serious emotional disturbance: A grant proposal project,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, “A Few Workers Keep Clinton’s Campaign on Track,” New York Times, p. A11, Jul. 16, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst.
ISSN (print)1063-8210
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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