How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Deweerdt, “Prevention: activity is the best medicine,” Nature, vol. 475, no. 7355, pp. S16-7, Jul. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. F. Atkins and R. Gesteland, “Biochemistry. The 22nd amino acid,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5572, pp. 1409–1410, May 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. J. Petrie, H. Koo, and K. M. Yamada, “Generation of compartmentalized pressure by a nuclear piston governs cell motility in a 3D matrix,” Science, vol. 345, no. 6200, pp. 1062–1065, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Pasqualucci et al., “Inactivating mutations of acetyltransferase genes in B-cell lymphoma,” Nature, vol. 471, no. 7337, pp. 189–195, Mar. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. H. Relethford, 50 Great Myths of Human Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
V. P. Glăveanu, L. Tanggaard, and C. Wegener, Eds., Creativity — A New Vocabulary. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Biró and B. Molnár, “Synergies Between the Common Criteria and Process Improvement,” in Software Process Improvement: 14th European Conference, EuroSPI 2007, Potsdam, Germany, September 26-28, 2007. Proceedings, P. Abrahamsson, N. Baddoo, T. Margaria, and R. Messnarz, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 31–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “Elon Musk Reveals His Ambitious Plan To Send One Million People To Colonize Mars,” IFLScience, 27-Sep-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Head Start: Curriculum Use and Individual Child Assessment in Cognitive and Language Development,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-03-1049, Sep. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Ren, “Modification and Characterization of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons for Resorcinol Removal,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. S. Bernard and S. Cowley, “Equifax Is Facing Harsh Scrutiny. If Only It Had Come a Bit Sooner,” New York Times, p. A1, 08-Sep-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst.
ISSN (print)1063-8210
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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