How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. M. Macklis, “Portrait of Science. Scientist, technologist, proto-feminist, superstar,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5560, pp. 1647–1648, Mar. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Shlomai and C. M. Rice, “Virology. Getting rid of a persistent troublemaker to cure hepatitis,” Science, vol. 343, no. 6176, pp. 1212–1213, Mar. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q.-X. Jiang, D.-N. Wang, and R. MacKinnon, “Electron microscopic analysis of KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channels in an open conformation,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 7001, pp. 806–810, Aug. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Duman-Scheel, L. Weng, S. Xin, and W. Du, “Hedgehog regulates cell growth and proliferation by inducing Cyclin D and Cyclin E,” Nature, vol. 417, no. 6886, pp. 299–304, May 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Pepper and M. J. Oliver, The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
J. Nuttall, Ed., Microbicides for Prevention of HIV Infection, vol. 383. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Brokate and G. Kersting, “The Integral of Nonnegative Functions,” in Measure and Integral, G. Kersting, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 29–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Watch SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Rocket Launch,” IFLScience, 10-Feb-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highway Projects: Some Federal and State Practices to Expedite Completion Show Promise,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-12-593, Jun. 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F. I. Obasi, “Policy analysis of the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, “Stranger in the Night,” New York Times, p. CY3, 24-Jan-2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst.
ISSN (print)1063-8210
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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