How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. M. Delude, “Deep phenotyping: The details of disease,” Nature, vol. 527, no. 7576, pp. S14-5, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Pasparakis and P. Vandenabeele, “Necroptosis and its role in inflammation,” Nature, vol. 517, no. 7534, pp. 311–320, Jan. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. I. Storch, K. R. Anderson, and D. Lai, “Chaotic dynamics of stellar spin in binaries and the production of misaligned hot Jupiters,” Science, vol. 345, no. 6202, pp. 1317–1321, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Schulz et al., “Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells,” Nature, vol. 433, no. 7028, pp. 887–892, Feb. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Blair and J. M. Regenstein, Genetic Modification and Food Quality. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
D. D. Suthers, K. Lund, C. P. Rosé, C. Teplovs, and N. Law, Eds., Productive Multivocality in the Analysis of Group Interactions, vol. 15. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Hoth et al., “CO2BioPerm—Influence of Bio-geochemical CO2-Transformation Processes on the Long-Term Permeability,” in Geological Storage of CO2 – Long Term Security Aspects: GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Science Report No. 22, A. Liebscher and U. Münch, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 73–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “Radio Galaxies: The Mysterious, Secretive ‘Beasts’ Of The Universe,” IFLScience, Oct. 20, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “District of Columbia: Extent to Which Schools Receive Available Federal Education Grants,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HEHS-99-1, Oct. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. J. Mete, “Can STEM initiatives be social justice oriented: An analysis of urban school reform via smaller learning communities,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, “Amy Schumer to Make Her Broadway Debut,” New York Times, p. C3, Aug. 07, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst.
ISSN (print)1063-8210
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles