How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Kun, “Evaluation: Moving away from metrics,” Nature, vol. 520, no. 7549, pp. S18-20, Apr. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. M. Rosen and C. T. Jordan, “The increasing complexity of the cancer stem cell paradigm,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5935, pp. 1670–1673, Jun. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. J. Franke, G. Schulze, and J. I. Pascual, “Competition of superconducting phenomena and Kondo screening at the nanoscale,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6032, pp. 940–944, May 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.-T. Huang et al., “Hirsutella sinensis mycelium suppresses interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1374, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Le Doeuff and M. E. H. Zaïm, Rotating Electrical Machines. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
K. B. H. Clancy, K. Hinde, and J. N. Rutherford, Eds., Building Babies: Primate Development in Proximate and Ultimate Perspective, vol. 37. in Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, vol. 37. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A. N. Popper et al., “Effects of Sound Exposure,” in ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI, A. D. Hawkins, R. R. Fay, D. A. Mann, S. Bartol, T. J. Carlson, S. Coombs, W. T. Ellison, R. L. Gentry, M. B. Halvorsen, S. Løkkeborg, P. H. Rogers, B. L. Southall, D. G. Zeddies, and W. N. Tavolga, Eds., in SpringerBriefs in Oceanography. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 17–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “These Jellies Glide Through The Water By Coordinating Their Jets,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Staffing, Training, and Funding Issues for FAA’s Major Work Forces,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-90-42, Mar. 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Pahuja, “Bandwidth feedback effects on retained movements in young and old adults,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, “A Bucolic Feel, Open Space and a Sense of Community,” New York Times, p. RE7, Dec. 14, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst.
ISSN (print)1063-8210
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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