How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Lawler, “BROOKHAVEN LAB: Forbes Loses in Fallout From Reactor Fight,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5487, p. 2021b, Sep. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Gallotti and M. Barthelemy, “Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6911, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. O. Lovejoy, K. G. Heiple, and R. S. Meindl, “Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk?,” Nature, vol. 410, no. 6826, pp. 325–326, Mar. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Deng et al., “Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1244, Feb. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Alsop, Continuing Professional Development in Health and Social Care. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2013.
An edited book
L. Rutkowski, R. Tadeusiewicz, L. A. Zadeh, and J. M. Zurada, Eds., Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing – ICAISC 2008: 9th International Conference Zakopane, Poland, June 22-26, 2008 Proceedings, vol. 5097. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5097. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Ahmadi and M. Newby, “A New Approach to Maintenance Optimization by Modeling Intensity Control,” in Mathematical and Statistical Models and Methods in Reliability: Applications to Medicine, Finance, and Quality Control, V. V. Rykov, N. Balakrishnan, and M. S. Nikulin, Eds., Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 2010, pp. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “It Turns Out Russia Is Not The Biggest Offender When It Comes To Doping At The Olympics,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Department of Homeland Security: Continued Actions Needed to Strengthen Oversight and Coordination of Research and Development,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-14-813T, Jul. 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. K. Buckley, “A study of at-risk students’ perceptions of an online academic credit recovery program in an urban North Texas independent school district,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Family and Friendship In Stately Victor’s Name,” New York Times, p. B15, Apr. 29, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst.
ISSN (print)2162-237X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

Other styles