How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Gibson, “Cancer: Directions for the drivers,” Nature, vol. 512, no. 7512, pp. 31–32, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Keegstra and J. Walton, “Plant science. Beta-glucans--brewer’s bane, dietician’s delight,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5769, pp. 1872–1873, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Portmann, A. Vaterlaus, and D. Pescia, “An inverse transition of magnetic domain patterns in ultrathin films,” Nature, vol. 422, no. 6933, pp. 701–704, Apr. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Tucci et al., “Evolutionary history and adaptation of a human pygmy population of Flores Island, Indonesia,” Science, vol. 361, no. 6401, pp. 511–516, Aug. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Featherstone and E. Holt, Small Animal Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2011.
An edited book
R. Reussner, J. Mayer, J. A. Stafford, S. Overhage, S. Becker, and P. J. Schroeder, Eds., Quality of Software Architectures and Software Quality: First International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2005, and Second International Workshop on Software Quality, SOQUA 2005, Erfurt, Germany, September 20-22, 2005. Proceedings, vol. 3712. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Gargantini, J. Petke, M. Radavelli, and P. Vavassori, “Validation of Constraints Among Configuration Parameters Using Search-Based Combinatorial Interaction Testing,” in Search Based Software Engineering: 8th International Symposium, SSBSE 2016, Raleigh, NC, USA, October 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, F. Sarro and K. Deb, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems.

Blog post
B. Taub, “LSD-bunked: How Research Is Finally Separating The Facts From The Myths Surrounding Acid,” IFLScience, Aug. 18, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Comments on Recent GAO Report on its Enterprise Architecture Efforts,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-190R, Nov. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. T. Ray, “Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of HIV Screening in a Primary Care Clinic,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “We’re All Finally Learning The True Price Of Football,” New York Times, p. B14, Oct. 29, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst.
ISSN (print)2162-237X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

Other styles