How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Vega-Villa, “Biodiversity: Ecuador deters protection efforts,” Science, vol. 343, no. 6168, p. 248, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. A. P. Koppers and H. Staudigel, “Asynchronous bends in Pacific seamount trails: a case for extensional volcanism?,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5711, pp. 904–907, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. N. Raymond, A. M. Mandell, and S. Sigurdsson, “Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5792, pp. 1413–1416, Sep. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. K. Sengar, B. R. Mehta, R. Kumar, and V. Singh, “In-flight gas phase growth of metal/multi layer graphene core shell nanoparticles with controllable sizes,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2814, Oct. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Todinov, Reliability and Risk Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
D. Avison, S. Elliot, J. Krogstie, and J. Pries-Heje, Eds., The Past and Future of Information Systems: 1976–2006 and Beyond: IFIP 19th World Computer Congress, TC-8, Information System Stream, August 21–23, 2006, Santiago, Chile, vol. 214. in IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, vol. 214. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Tempesta, “Landscape and Economy,” in Italian Historical Rural Landscapes: Cultural Values for the Environment and Rural Development, M. Agnoletti, Ed., in Environmental History. , Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013, pp. 153–164.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Multimedia.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “If The USA Exits The Paris Agreement, This Is What Will Happen,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Customs Automation: Progress Made, More Expected in Revenue Reconciliation Process,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-91-27, Mar. 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Yoon, “Jan Radzynski’s Canto (1981): An Introductory View of Its Genre, Style, and Form, with Suggestions for Performance,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lee, “Divide and Conquer,” New York Times, p. D3, Jul. 17, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Multimedia
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Multimedia
ISSN (print)1520-9210
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

Other styles