How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. L. Feringa, “Chemistry. A new twist on chirality,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5524, pp. 2021–2022, Jun. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. M. Tessier and S. Lindquist, “Prion recognition elements govern nucleation, strain specificity and species barriers,” Nature, vol. 447, no. 7144, pp. 556–561, May 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Luo, J. Zhu, and H. Ye, “Comment on ‘Tubular graphite cones,’” Science, vol. 303, no. 5659, pp. 766; author reply 766, Feb. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X.-T. Ge et al., “miR-21 improves the neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury in rats,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6718, Oct. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Pelto, Recent Climate Change Impacts on Mountain Glaciers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
G. Rehm and H. Uszkoreit, Eds., The Finnish Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
E. B. Guedes, F. M. de Assis, and R. A. C. Medeiros, “Zero-Error Capacity of Quantum Channels,” in Quantum Zero-Error Information Theory, F. M. de Assis and R. A. C. Medeiros, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 79–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Multimedia.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Scientists Are Running For Congress Because ‘The Future Hangs In The Balance,’” IFLScience, Jun. 04, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Special Education: Numbers of Formal Disputes Are Generally Low and States Are Using Mediation and Other Strategies to Resolve Conflicts,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-03-897, Sep. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. S. Beck, “Waging war with words: Idealized gender and Iberian chivalry,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Kelly, “Heroes, Studs and Raging Bulls,” New York Times, p. BR12, Jun. 13, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Multimedia
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Multimedia
ISSN (print)1520-9210
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

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