How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Leask, “Target the fence-sitters,” Nature, vol. 473, no. 7348, pp. 443–445, May 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. O. Sung and I. Sohn, “The expression pattern of 19 genes predicts the histology of endometrial carcinoma,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5174, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Watanabe, C. E. Nebel, and S. Shikata, “Isotopic homojunction band engineering from diamond,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5933, pp. 1425–1428, Jun. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. A. Mazzali et al., “A neutron-star-driven X-ray flash associated with supernova SN 2006aj,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7106, pp. 1018–1020, Aug. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Zeng, W. Lou, and M. Li, Multihop Wireless Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
J. García-Vidal and L. Cerdà-Alabern, Eds., Wireless Systems and Mobility in Next Generation Internet: Third International Workshop of the EURO-NGI Network of Excellence, Sitges, Spain, June 6-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 4396. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Carrascosa, A. Terrasa, A. García-Fornes, A. Espinosa, and V. Botti, “A Meta-Reasoning Model for Hard Real-Time Agents,” in Current Topics in Artificial Intelligence: 11th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2005, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, November 16-18, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, R. Marín, E. Onaindía, A. Bugarín, and J. Santos, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Multimedia.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Tick-Induced Meat Allergy Reportedly On The Rise,” IFLScience, Oct. 10, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Followup Review of the National Science Foundation’s Conflict of Interest Resolution System for Short-Term Employees,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-84-35, Jan. 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Aggarwal, “South Asian women’s attitudes toward help-seeking behaviors,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kang and M. J. de la MERCED, “AT&T’s Blockbuster Bid For Time Warner Is in Limbo,” New York Times, p. B1, Jul. 09, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Multimedia
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Multimedia
ISSN (print)1520-9210
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

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