How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Schlamminger, “Fundamental constants: a cool way to measure big G,” Nature, vol. 510, no. 7506, pp. 478–480, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Szalay and J. Gray, “2020 computing: science in an exponential world,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7083, pp. 413–414, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.-Y. T. Li, M.-M. Poo, and Y. Dan, “Burst spiking of a single cortical neuron modifies global brain state,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5927, pp. 643–646, May 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. F. Straight, A. Cheung, J. Limouze, I. Chen, N. J. Westwood, J. R. Sellers, and T. J. Mitchison, “Dissecting temporal and spatial control of cytokinesis with a myosin II Inhibitor,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5613, pp. 1743–1747, Mar. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. R. Flynn, How to Improve Your Mind. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
M. H. Musani, Clinical Pearls in Diagnostic Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Mark, K. Topley, J. Nutting, F. Olsson, and J. LaMarche, “Rotation and Adaptive Layout,” in Beginning iPhone Development with Swift 2: Exploring the iOS SDK, K. Topley, J. Nutting, F. Olsson, and J. LaMarche, Eds. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2015, pp. 141–179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “10,000 Year-Old Monolith Discovered Under The Ocean,” IFLScience, 11-Aug-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken to Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-673, Apr. 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Okada, “Corporate culture and organizational efficiency in the competitive international market,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Tankersley, “Economist Says Benefits Of Tax Cut Were Inflated,” New York Times, p. A18, 17-Oct-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
ISSN (print)0278-0062
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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