How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. A. Amos, “Biochemistry. Pressing levers or pulling strings?,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5908, pp. 1647–1648, Dec. 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. R. Ort and S. P. Long, “Botany. Limits on yields in the Corn Belt,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6183, pp. 484–485, May 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. H. Strauss, A. Costanza, and A. Séguin, “BIOTECHNOLOGY. Genetically engineered trees: Paralysis from good intentions,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6250, pp. 794–795, Aug. 2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Pachoud, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, B.-H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, K. P. Loh, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Multiple virtual tunneling of Dirac fermions in granular graphene,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3404, Dec. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Beiser, Unified Optical Scanning Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
B. Mobasher, O. Nasraoui, B. Liu, and B. Masand, Eds., Advances in Web Mining and Web Usage Analysis: 6th International Workshop on Knowledge Discovery on the Web, WebKDD 2004, Seattle, WA, USA, August 22-25, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 3932. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Ziegler, “Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction,” in In-situ Materials Characterization: Across Spatial and Temporal Scales, A. Ziegler, H. Graafsma, X. F. Zhang, and J. W. M. Frenken, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, pp. 111–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Amazing Footage Of Volcanic Eruption Shot From A Drone,” IFLScience, 06-Oct-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Audit of the Expenditure of Funds by the District of Columbia Public Schools, FY 1970-1971,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-118638, Mar. 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Basik, “An evolutionary approach to intuitionism and moral realism,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, “A Different Kind of Dystopian Novel,” New York Times, p. C5, 19-Feb-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
ISSN (print)0278-0062
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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