How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. A. Sarkar, “Cell signaling. Concentrating (on) native proteins to control cell fate,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6152, pp. 1349–1351, Sep. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. M. C. Souza and R. F. S. Andrade, “Coin state properties in quantum walks,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1976, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. M. Latimer, J. A. Silander Jr, and R. M. Cowling, “Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5741, pp. 1722–1725, Sep. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. E. Melchinger, W. Schipprack, T. Würschum, S. Chen, and F. Technow, “Rapid and accurate identification of in vivo-induced haploid seeds based on oil content in maize,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2129, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Wallgren and B. Wallgren, Register-Based Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
T. Hehn, CMOS Circuits for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters: Efficient Power Extraction, Interface Modeling and Loss Analysis, vol. 38. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
K. R. Khalilpour and A. Vassallo, “PV-Battery Nanogrid Systems,” in Community Energy Networks With Storage: Modeling Frameworks for Distributed Generation, A. Vassallo, Ed. Singapore: Springer, 2016, pp. 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Planet Smaller than Earth Located Over 200 Light Years Away,” IFLScience, 19-Jun-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Strategic Airlift: Improvements in C-5 Mission Capability Can Help Meet Airlift Requirements,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-96-43, Nov. 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Decena, “What variables affect Peritoneal Dialysis growth?,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, “‘The Cher Show’ Is Set for Broadway,” New York Times, p. C2, 28-Sep-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
ISSN (print)0278-0062
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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