How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Dalibard, “Journal club. A quantum-gas specialist learns about crystals from his own science,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7230, p. 639, Feb. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. J. B. Krieger and K. G. Ross, “Identification of a major gene regulating complex social behavior,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5553, pp. 328–332, Jan. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Seoane, H.-V. Le, and J. Massagué, “Myc suppression of the p21(Cip1) Cdk inhibitor influences the outcome of the p53 response to DNA damage,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6908, pp. 729–734, Oct. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Frei, C. Gaucher, S. W. Poulton, and D. E. Canfield, “Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7261, pp. 250–253, Sep. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. A. Hites and J. D. Raff, Elements of Environmental Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
W. J. Paul, System Architecture: An Ordinary Engineering Discipline. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Charpiat, M. Hofmann, and B. Schölkopf, “Kernel Methods in Medical Imaging,” in Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research, N. Paragios, J. Duncan, and N. Ayache, Eds. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2015, pp. 63–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Scientists Think They Have Figured Out How Stress Can Increase Heart Attack Risk,” IFLScience, 12-Jan-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Air Traffic Control: Good Progress on Interim Replacement for Outage-Plagued System, but Risks Can Be Further Reduced,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AIMD-97-2, Oct. 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Peacock, “Design science research toward designing/prototyping a repeatable model for testing location management (LM) algorithms for wireless networking,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “An Esteemed Seminary’s Earthly Concern: The Endowment Shrinks, but Bills Persist,” New York Times, p. 144, 17-Mar-2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
ISSN (print)0278-0062
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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