How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Davies, “Keep the directive that protects research animals,” Nature, vol. 521, no. 7550, p. 7, May 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. D. Tanaka and K. Ueda, “Horsfield’s hawk-cuckoo nestlings simulate multiple gapes for begging,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5722, p. 653, Apr. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Wookey, J.-M. Kendall, and G. Barruol, “Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6873, pp. 777–780, Feb. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. R. Gerber et al., “Endangered species recovery: A resource allocation problem,” Science, vol. 362, no. 6412, pp. 284–286, Oct. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Hurst, Primary Care Trust Workforce Planning and Development. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Whurr Publishers Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
M. Cannone and T. Miyakawa, Eds., Mathematical Foundation of Turbulent Viscous Flows: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Martina Franca, Italy, SEptember 1-5, 2003, vol. 1871. in Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 1871. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Neby, “Marketization and Accountability: Lessons from the Reforming Norwegian Healthcare System,” in Public Accountability and Health Care Governance: Public Management Reforms Between Austerity and Democracy, P. Mattei, Ed., in Recent reforms and current policy changes. , London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp. 65–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Half-Female, Half-Male Cardinal is a Lonely Bird,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Study of Certain Management Practices at the National Institute of Education,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-77-1, Oct. 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Weygandt, “Extension of Elementary Functions to Zeon Algebras,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “More Than a Wizard,” New York Times, p. D1, Jun. 05, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
ISSN (print)1556-6013
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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