How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Kanamori, “Earthquake hazards: Putting seismic research to most effective use,” Nature, vol. 483, no. 7388, pp. 147–148, Mar. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Nienborg and B. G. Cumming, “Decision-related activity in sensory neurons reflects more than a neuron’s causal effect,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7243, pp. 89–92, May 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. B. Otto, B. C. Rall, and U. Brose, “Allometric degree distributions facilitate food-web stability,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7173, pp. 1226–1229, Dec. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. M. Friis et al., “Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7169, pp. 549–552, Nov. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Hanzo and T. Keller, OFDM and MC-CDMA. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
H. M. Duvernoy, The Human Hippocampus: Functional Anatomy, Vascularization and Serial Sections with MRI, 4th ed. 2013. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. G. Aggelis, “Acoustic Emission Analysis for NDE in Concrete,” in Innovative AE and NDT Techniques for On-Site Measurement of Concrete and Masonry Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 239-MCM, M. Ohtsu, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, pp. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Calbuco Volcano – Evacuations And Air-Traffic Disruption Follow Eruption,” IFLScience, Apr. 27, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “[Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan],” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-256497, May 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Y. Rawashdeh, “A Relational Framework for Clustering and Cluster Validity and the Generalization of the Silhouette Measure,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Justices Hear Arguments About Pacts On Pricing,” New York Times, p. C1, Mar. 27, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
ISSN (print)1556-6013
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles