How to format your references using the Computer Architecture Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Architecture Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. M. Krug, “Virology. Clues to the virulence of H5N1 viruses in humans,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5767, pp. 1562–1563, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Marmottant and S. Hilgenfeldt, “Controlled vesicle deformation and lysis by single oscillating bubbles,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6936, pp. 153–156, May 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Ghoshal, L. Chi, and A.-L. Barabási, “Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2920, Oct. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. H. Zurbuchen et al., “MESSENGER observations of the composition of Mercury’s ionized exosphere and plasma environment,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5885, pp. 90–92, Jul. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Ghosh and S. Berg, Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Y. Ohsawa, Innovators’ Marketplace: Using Games to Activate and Train Innovators. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Noyola-Cherpitel, P. Medellín-Milán, and L. M. Nieto-Caraveo, “Discourses and Identity: An Educational Sociology Approach to Campus Sustainability Assessment,” in The Contribution of Social Sciences to Sustainable Development at Universities, W. Leal Filho and M. Zint, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Architecture Letters.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “The Science of Bacon,” IFLScience, Jun. 26, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS),” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-161744, Feb. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Williams Soberanes, “Experiences of Mexican Immigrant Women Living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “Ask for a Taco, Not For Lucinda,” New York Times, p. NJ12, May 18, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Architecture Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Comput. Arch. Lett.
ISSN (print)1556-6056
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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