How to format your references using the Computer Architecture Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Architecture Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Dolgin, “Research technique: the murine candidate,” Nature, vol. 474, no. 7350, pp. S14-5, Jun. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. S. Istvan and J. Deisenhofer, “Structural mechanism for statin inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5519, pp. 1160–1164, May 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Gorzelak, E. Głuchowski, and M. A. Salamon, “Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6049, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Wasser et al., “Conservation. Elephants, ivory, and trade,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5971, pp. 1331–1332, Mar. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Anichini, F. Carraro, P. Geslin, and G. Guille-Escuret, Technicity vs Scientificity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
M. Onozuka and C.-T. Yen, Eds., Novel Trends in Brain Science: Brain Imaging, Learning and Memory, Stress and Fear, and Pain. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
J. F. G. Fernández and A. C. Márquez, “Techniques and Tools for Maintenance Management,” in Maintenance Management in Network Utilities: Framework and Practical Implementation, A. Crespo Márquez, Ed. London: Springer, 2012, pp. 85–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Architecture Letters.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “Robot Bees Vs Real Bees – Why Tiny Drones Can’t Compete With The Real Thing,” IFLScience, Feb. 10, 2017. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Use of Department of Education Title III Grant Funds by the International Institute of the Americas of World University,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-84-20, Apr. 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. J. Alimo, “From dialogue to action: The development of White racial allies,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. Neuman, “Mayor’s Ouster Is Approved in Colombia,” New York Times, p. A9, Mar. 21, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Architecture Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Comput. Arch. Lett.
ISSN (print)1556-6056
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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