How to format your references using the Computer Architecture Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Architecture Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Check, “Biologists wary that cash up front could mean cuts later,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6924, p. 677, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Gao and T. Theuns, “Lighting the universe with filaments,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5844, pp. 1527–1530, Sep. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Xiang, C.-K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3720, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. J. Burns, D. Fleitmann, A. Matter, J. Kramers, and A. A. Al-Subbary, “Indian Ocean climate and an absolute chronology over Dansgaard/Oeschger events 9 to 13,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5638, pp. 1365–1367, Sep. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. A. Teague and N. Gallicchio, The Evolution of Meteorology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
C.-C. Yi, Ed., The Psychological Well-being of East Asian Youth, vol. 2. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Seidengart, “The Inception of the Concept of Infinite Physical Space in the Time of Copernicus and Giordano Bruno,” in Boundaries, Extents and Circulations: Space and Spatiality in Early Modern Natural Philosophy, K. Vermeir and J. Regier, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 107–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Architecture Letters.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Floating Plastic Found Within The Arctic Circle,” IFLScience, 24-Oct-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Survey of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (GAO-09-867SP, September 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-868,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-867SP, Sep. 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Byeon, “More than words: A comparative study of Liszt’s Liebesträume and the songs from which they were transcribed,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, “Sorting Out their Goals, and Options,” New York Times, p. WE7, 12-Apr-2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Architecture Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Comput. Arch. Lett.
ISSN (print)1556-6056
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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