How to format your references using the Computer Architecture Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Architecture Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Wigzell, “Science & Politics: when ministers are well primed,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7163, p. 663, Oct. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Dulcis and N. C. Spitzer, “Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating behaviour,” Nature, vol. 456, no. 7219, pp. 195–201, Nov. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Stach, J. Benard, and M. Giurfa, “Local-feature assembling in visual pattern recognition and generalization in honeybees,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6993, pp. 758–761, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. van der Marel et al., “Quantum critical behaviour in a high-T(c) superconductor,” Nature, vol. 425, no. 6955, pp. 271–274, Sep. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O. K. Ersoy, Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
N. P. Smart, Ed., Cryptography and Coding: 10th IMA International Conference, Cirencester, UK, December 19-21, 2005. Proceedings, vol. 3796. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3796. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Strumiłło, “Adaptive Reuse of Buildings as an Important Factor of Sustainable Development,” in Advances in Human Factors and Sustainable Infrastructure: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and Sustainable Infrastructure, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, J. Charytonowicz, Ed., in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Architecture Letters.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “How Tiny Black Spots Shed Light On Part Of The Homo Naledi Mystery,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Motor Carrier Safety: Federal Safety Agency Identifies Many High-Risk Carriers but Does Not Assess Maximum Fines as Often as Required by Law,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-07-584, Aug. 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Azios, “The College Experience of Stuttering: An Ethnographic Study,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “A.I.G. and U.S. Agree on Exit Plan, but Numbers Are Uncertain,” New York Times, p. B6, Oct. 01, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Architecture Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Comput. Arch. Lett.
ISSN (print)1556-6056
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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