How to format your references using the Computer Architecture Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Architecture Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Check, “Biodefence: ploughshares into swords,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, p. 736, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Palmer and G. Lynch, “Neuroscience. A Kantian view of space,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5985, pp. 1487–1488, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Deuss, J. C. E. Irving, and J. H. Woodhouse, “Regional variation of inner core anisotropy from seismic normal mode observations,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5981, pp. 1018–1020, May 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Yao et al., “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5891, p. 930, Aug. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Böhmer, Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
A. Márquez, P. Ramos, and J. Urrutia, Eds., Computational Geometry: XIV Spanish Meeting on Computational Geometry, EGC 2011, Dedicated to Ferran Hurtado on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, June 27-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 7579. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7579. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Han, C. D. Oliver, J. Ge, Q. Guo, and X. Kou, “Managing Forest Stand Structures to Enhance Conservation of the Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica),” in A Goal-Oriented Approach to Forest Landscape Restoration, J. Stanturf, P. Madsen, and D. Lamb, Eds., in World Forests. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 93–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Architecture Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Parkinson’s Therapy Revived After 20 Years,” IFLScience, May 27, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA’s FMFIA Assertions and CFO Plan,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AFMD-93-65R, Jun. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F. Zarate Ramirez, “Pedagogical and performance approach to selected bel canto songs and arias of Bellini and Donizetti,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Landler and M. D. Shear, “Mild in Mideast, but Elbows Are Out in Europe,” New York Times, p. A1, May 27, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Architecture Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Comput. Arch. Lett.
ISSN (print)1556-6056
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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