How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Zeilinger, “QUANTUM COMPUTING: Quantum Entangled Bits Step Closer to IT,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5478, pp. 405–406, Jul. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Grayson and S. Pincock, “Nature Index 2015 Collaborations,” Nature, vol. 527, no. 7577, p. S49, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Flachsova, R. Sindelka, and M. Kubista, “Single blastomere expression profiling of Xenopus laevis embryos of 8 to 32-cells reveals developmental asymmetry,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2278, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Okabe, T. Imai, M. Kurusu, Y. Hiromi, and H. Okano, “Translational repression determines a neuronal potential in Drosophila asymmetric cell division,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6833, pp. 94–98, May 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Thompson, J. D. Hogan, and P. M. Clark, Developmental Psychology in Historical Perspective. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
A. Kalayjian, Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Psychological Pathways to Conflict Transformation and Peace Building. in Peace Psychology Book Series. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
R. J. Housden et al., “Evaluation of a Real-Time Hybrid Three-Dimensional Echo and X-Ray Imaging System for Guidance of Cardiac Catheterisation Procedures,” in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2012: 15th International Conference, Nice, France, October 1-5, 2012, Proceedings, Part II, N. Ayache, H. Delingette, P. Golland, and K. Mori, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Education.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Scientists Produce The Most Detailed Simulation Of The Universe Yet,” IFLScience, Oct. 28, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Security: Improved Testing, Evaluation, and Performance Measurement Could Enhance Effectiveness,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-16-199T, Nov. 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. T. Sweeney, “Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare treatment outcomes: Wediko Children’s Services short-term residential treatment program,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, “Zverev and Konta Lose In French Open Upsets,” New York Times, p. B10, May 30, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Education
ISSN (print)0018-9359
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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