How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Reichhardt, “Funding woes spell doom for US radio dish,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6773, p. 7, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Ouyang and D. D. Awschalom, “Coherent spin transfer between molecularly bridged quantum dots,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5636, pp. 1074–1078, Aug. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Hainzl, S. Huang, and A. E. Sauer-Eriksson, “Structure of the SRP19 RNA complex and implications for signal recognition particle assembly,” Nature, vol. 417, no. 6890, pp. 767–771, Jun. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Schramek et al., “Osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL controls development of progestin-driven mammary cancer,” Nature, vol. 468, no. 7320, pp. 98–102, Nov. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Eynon, The Design Manager’s Handbook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
An edited book
P. L. Bonate and D. R. Howard, Eds., Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development: Advances and Applications, Volume 3. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
M. S. R. Maulucci, “Invoking the Sacred: Reflections on the Implications of EcoJustice for Science Education,” in Cultural Studies and Environmentalism: The Confluence of EcoJustice, Place-based (Science) Education, and Indigenous Knowledge Systems, D. J. Tippins, M. P. Mueller, M. van Eijck, and J. D. Adams, Eds., in Cultural Studies of Science Education. , Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, pp. 43–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Education.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “How The Bacteria In Our Gut Affect Our Cravings For Food,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Telecommunications: Issues Concerning Licensing of Telecommunications Engineers and Technicians,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-90-106FS, Mar. 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Leesombatpiboon, “Thailand’s energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “New Ideas On Pensions: Use States,” New York Times, p. B1, Mar. 27, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Education
ISSN (print)0018-9359
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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