How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. S. Jayaraman, “Indian prime minister pledges to revamp science,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6919, p. 101, Jan. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. D. Richter and W. E. Theurkauf, “Development. The message is in the translation,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5527, pp. 60–62, Jul. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. A. Kiger, H. White-Cooper, and M. T. Fuller, “Somatic support cells restrict germline stem cell self-renewal and promote differentiation,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6805, pp. 750–754, Oct. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Tomeoka, K. Kiriyama, K. Nakamura, Y. Yamahana, and T. Sekine, “Interplanetary dust from the explosive dispersal of hydrated asteroids by impacts,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6935, pp. 60–62, May 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Kassapoglou, Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
A. Mordini and F. Faigl, Eds., New Methodologies and Techniques for a Sustainable Organic Chemistry, vol. 246. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
A. R. Huebner et al., “Exosomes in Urine Biomarker Discovery,” in Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery, Y. Gao, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, pp. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Education.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Vitamin Found To Halt Aging In Muscle Tissues And Increase Lifespan,” IFLScience, May 04, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Institutional Aid Under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 127541, Jul. 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. O. Crosby, “ATI v. Colorado: How the Commerce Clause Provides Guidance at the Confluence of Energy, Environmental, and Constitutional Law,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Detainee Case Will Pose Delicate Question for Court,” New York Times, p. A12, Mar. 27, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Education
ISSN (print)0018-9359
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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