How to format your references using the Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayer, G., 2005. Rigid biological systems as models for synthetic composites. Science 310, 1144–1147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Showalter, M.R., Lissauer, J.J., 2006. The second ring-moon system of Uranus: discovery and dynamics. Science 311, 973–977.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cardinale, B.J., Palmer, M.A., Collins, S.L., 2002. Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature 415, 426–429.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ntoukakis, V., Mucyn, T.S., Gimenez-Ibanez, S., Chapman, H.C., Gutierrez, J.R., Balmuth, A.L., Jones, A.M.E., Rathjen, J.P., 2009. Host inhibition of a bacterial virulence effector triggers immunity to infection. Science 324, 784–787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C., 2014. Sinusoidal Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Wu, Y. (Ed.), 2012. Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Grønbæk, B., Valente, P., Hallenborg, K., 2011. Information Extraction System Using Indoor Location and Activity Plan, in: Demazeau, Y., Pěchoucěk, M., Corchado, J.M., Pérez, J.B. (Eds.), Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Massive Storm Found Within Galaxy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. VOR/DME and LORAN Expansion (No. RCED-93-211R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenthal, P.M., 2014. Local Land Use Regulatory Regimes and Residential Development Outcomes: An Analysis of Subdivision Review in Four Counties in the DC Region (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2011. Sky’s the Limit: Yogis Head Outdoors. New York Times MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayer, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mayer, 2005; Showalter and Lissauer, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Showalter and Lissauer, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Ntoukakis et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental and Toxicologic Pathology
AbbreviationExp. Toxicol. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0940-2993
ScopeCell Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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