How to format your references using the Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, V.R., 2001. Water and the martian landscape. Nature 412, 228–236.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucas, D., Frenette, P.S., 2014. Stem cells: Reprogramming finds its niche. Nature 511, 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sorenson, M.D., Sefc, K.M., Payne, R.B., 2003. Speciation by host switch in brood parasitic indigobirds. Nature 424, 928–931.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gunnarsen, K.S., Kristinsson, S.G., Justesen, S., Frigstad, T., Buus, S., Bogen, B., Sandlie, I., Løset, G.Å., 2013. Chaperone-assisted thermostability engineering of a soluble T cell receptor using phage display. Sci. Rep. 3, 1162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vignes, A., 2013. Extractive Metallurgy 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kinny, D., Hsu, J.Y.-J., Governatori, G., Ghose, A.K. (Eds.), 2011. Agents in Principle, Agents in Practice: 14th International Conference, PRIMA 2011, Wollongong, Australia, November 16-18, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Efremov, S., Pilipenko, N., Voskov, L., Komarov, M., 2015. Cloud IoT Platforms: A Solid Foundation for the Future Web or a Temporary Workaround?, in: Balandin, S., Andreev, S., Koucheryavy, Y. (Eds.), Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networks and Systems: 15th International Conference, NEW2AN 2015, and 8th Conference, RuSMART 2015, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. Weather Channel Issues Unusual Warning: “This Is Not Hyperbole, And I Am Not Kidding” — Leave [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. United States Interests and Activities in Nepal (No. B-177681). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sweeney, M.T., 2010. Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare treatment outcomes: Wediko Children’s Services short-term residential treatment program (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Savage, C., Haberman, M., 2017. Trump Rebukes Author of Memo On Comey Firing. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2001; Lucas and Frenette, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucas and Frenette, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gunnarsen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental and Toxicologic Pathology
AbbreviationExp. Toxicol. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0940-2993
ScopeCell Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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