How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. A. Cochrane, “Fire science for rainforests,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6926, pp. 913–919, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Li and J. Xu, “Dietary and circulating lycopene and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5031, May 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. X. Mitrovica, N. Gomez, and P. U. Clark, “The sea-level fingerprint of West Antarctic collapse,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5915, p. 753, Feb. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Liu, J. H. Gao, H. L. Liu, and P. T. Fox, “The temporal response of the brain after eating revealed by functional MRI,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6790, pp. 1058–1062, Jun. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. R. Woods, Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
V. P. Gerdt, W. Koepf, W. M. Seiler, and E. V. Vorozhtsov, Eds., Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing: 16th International Workshop, CASC 2014, Warsaw, Poland, September 8-12, 2014. Proceedings, vol. 8660. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8660. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
V. S. Gurin, “Small Metal Clusters: AB Initio Calculated Bare Clusters and Models Within Fullerene Cages,” in Frontiers of Multifunctional Integrated Nanosystems, E. Buzaneva and P. Scharff, Eds., in NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005, pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Quantum Correlations Create Incredibly Precise Measurements,” IFLScience, May 17, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “More Can Be Done To Improve the Department of Agriculture’s Commodity Donation Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, CED-81-83, Jul. 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. K. Haire, “Elucidation of the Role of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Drug-Induced Toxicity,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Belson and M. Pilon, “Marathon Is Set to Go On, Stirring Debate,” New York Times, p. B11, Oct. 31, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Computers
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Comput.
ISSN (print)0018-9340
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

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