How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. A. Lazar, “How obesity causes diabetes: not a tall tale,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5708, pp. 373–375, Jan. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Schmidt and U. Gösele, “Materials science. How nanowires grow,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5825, pp. 698–699, May 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. P. Barnett, J. C. Adam, and D. P. Lettenmaier, “Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7066, pp. 303–309, Nov. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. A. Sisneros, P. M. Forlano, D. L. Deitcher, and A. H. Bass, “Steroid-dependent auditory plasticity leads to adaptive coupling of sender and receiver,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5682, pp. 404–407, Jul. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. A. Al-Shuhail, S. A. Al-Dossary, and W. A. Mousa, Seismic Data Interpretation using Digital Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
N. Gunde-Cimerman, A. Oren, and A. Plemenitaš, Eds., Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, vol. 9. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Fang, X. Gao, X. Gong, and A. Zhou, “Interpolation Based Local Postprocessing for Adaptive Finite Element Approximations in Electronic Structure Calculations,” in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XIX, Y. Huang, R. Kornhuber, O. Widlund, and J. Xu, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 51–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “A Century After The Battle Of The Somme, Can We finally Explain Shell Shock?,” IFLScience, Jul. 01, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Research Grants: Maintaining Public Accountability Without Inhibiting Creative Research,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 094378, Apr. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Jin, “Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Duffing Oscillator with Time-delay,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, “The Skyjacker’s Tale,” New York Times, p. C8, Jun. 29, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Computers
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Comput.
ISSN (print)0018-9340
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

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