How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Parthasarathy, “From scepticism to acceptance,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6910, pp. 4–6, Oct. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. D. Patel and E. Balaban, “Temporal patterns of human cortical activity reflect tone sequence structure,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6773, pp. 80–84, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. A. Pevzner, S. Kim, and J. Ng, “Comment on ‘Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry,’” Science, vol. 321, no. 5892, pp. 1040; author reply 1040, Aug. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Shine, B. Phillips, H. Waye, M. LeMaster, and R. T. Mason, “Benefits of female mimicry in snakes,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, p. 267, Nov. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Laycock and K. Meeran, Integrated Endocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
S. G. Castellanos, Competition and Efficiency in the Mexican Banking Industry: Theory and Empirical Evidence. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Falcone, J.-C. Fernandez, L. Mounier, and J.-L. Richier, “A Test Calculus Framework Applied to Network Security Policies,” in Formal Approaches to Software Testing and Runtime Verification: First Combined International Workshops, FATES 2006 and RV 2006, Seattle, WA, USA, August 15-16, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, K. Havelund, M. Núñez, G. Roşu, and B. Wolff, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “How To Make A Cloud At Home,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Undergraduate Helicopter Pilot Training: Consolidation Could Yield Significant Savings,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, FPCD-80-37, Jan. 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. M. Wasserman, “Psychological Symptoms, Family Functioning, and Religious Coping in Second- and Third-Generation Holocaust Survivors,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Surico, “A Jail Officer Is Fatally Shot In Brooklyn,” New York Times, p. A22, Dec. 06, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Computers
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Comput.
ISSN (print)0018-9340
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

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