How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. K. Baillie, “Translational genomics. Targeting the host immune response to fight infection,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6186, pp. 807–808, May 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Jinnah and S. Jungcurt, “Global biological resources. Could access requirements stifle your research?,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5913, pp. 464–465, Jan. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. C. Milward, M. J. Calderón, and P. B. Littlewood, “Electronically soft phases in manganites,” Nature, vol. 433, no. 7026, pp. 607–610, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X.-Y. Gao et al., “Combination of mild hypothermia with neuroprotectants has greater neuroprotective effects during oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation-mediated neuronal injury,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7091, Nov. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Tibergien and R. Pomering, Practice Made (More) Perfect. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
V. Komornik, Fourier Series in Control Theory. New York, NY: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Kelly, S. C. Kaufman, J. Lass, D. Barsness, B. A. Benetz, and P. Gupta, “Imaging Techniques for Corneal Disorders,” in Advances in Medical and Surgical Cornea: From Diagnosis to Procedure, B. H. Jeng, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Gravitational Lens Gives High-Energy View Of 7-Billion-Year-Old Explosion,” IFLScience, Nov. 07, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Intercity Passenger Rail: Financial Performance of Amtrak’s Routes,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-98-151, May 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F. I. Mbwiri, “Remedial Math Instruction Intervention: Efficacy of Constructivist Practices on Alternative Students with Disabilities Mathematics Achievement,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, “Raynoma Singleton, Early Motown Force, Dies at 79,” New York Times, p. A30, Dec. 04, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Computers
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Comput.
ISSN (print)0018-9340
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

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