How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. L. Hunt, “Applied physics. Robotic walking in the real world,” Science, vol. 339, no. 6126, pp. 1389–1390, Mar. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Sato and H. Clevers, “Growing self-organizing mini-guts from a single intestinal stem cell: mechanism and applications,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6137, pp. 1190–1194, Jun. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. C. Y. Li, F. Petruccione, and J. Koch, “Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4887, May 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Zhou et al., “Structural basis for recognition of centromere histone variant CenH3 by the chaperone Scm3,” Nature, vol. 472, no. 7342, pp. 234–237, Apr. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Unmehopa, K. Vemuri, and A. Bennett, Parlay/OSA. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
A. Chinchuluun, P. M. Pardalos, A. Migdalas, and L. Pitsoulis, Eds., Pareto Optimality, Game Theory And Equilibria, vol. 17. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Gatti, A. M. Orlando, E. Monza, and L. Lo Presti, “Exploring Chemistry Through the Source Function for the Electron and the Electron Spin Densities,” in Applications of Topological Methods in Molecular Chemistry, R. Chauvin, C. Lepetit, B. Silvi, and E. Alikhani, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 101–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “Venus Has Very Few Volcanoes – Weirdly, This Might Be Why It’s As Hot As Hell,” IFLScience, 31-May-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Inconsistencies in Awarding Financial Aid to Students Under Four Federal Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-79-16, May 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. M. Henderson, “Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Rojas and M. W. Walsh, “Hartford, With Finances in Disarray, Veers Toward Bankruptcy,” New York Times, p. A18, 15-Aug-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Computers
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Comput.
ISSN (print)0018-9340
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

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