How to format your references using the Clinical Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nuclear Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chandler VL. Paramutation’s properties and puzzles. Science. 2010;330:628–629.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yashin VV, Balazs AC. Pattern formation and shape changes in self-oscillating polymer gels. Science. 2006;314:798–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Szostak JW, Bartel DP, Luisi PL. Synthesizing life. Nature. 2001;409:387–390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang X, Xu T, Li Y, et al. Dynamic modular architecture of protein-protein interaction networks beyond the dichotomy of “date” and “party” hubs. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1691.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR. Fundraising Law Made Easy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Gorb SN, editor. Functional Surfaces in Biology: Little Structures with Big Effects Volume 1. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Prasad SV, Meher KK. Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste: A Focus on Microbial Community Structures. In: Karthikeyan OP, Heimann K, Muthu SS, editors. Recycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals. Singapore: Springer; 2016. page 127–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Astronomers Solve Mystery Of When Ancient Greek Poem Was Written [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Improved Controls Needed To Prevent Unauthorized Access at Key Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988. Report No.: RCED-88-86.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarter KM. The effect of auditory stimulation on learners with different learning styles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Green Day Is No. 1. New York Times. 2016;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0363-9762
ISSN (online)1536-0229
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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