How to format your references using the Clinical Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nuclear Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeley TD. Obituary: martin lindauer (1918-2008). Nature. 2008;456:718.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katan MB, de Roos NM. Public health. Toward evidence-based health claims for foods. Science. 2003;299:206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang F, Lin J-S, Liu K. Steric control of the reaction of CH stretch-excited CHD3 with chlorine atom. Science. 2011;331:900–903.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McNeil BI, Matear RJ, Key RM, et al. Anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean based on the global chlorofluorocarbon data set. Science. 2003;299:235–239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kolb RW. Sovereign Debt. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Weidman JC, Jacob WJ, editors. Beyond the Comparative: Advancing Theory and its Application to Practice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakkeeran S, Renukadevi P, Aiyanathan KEA. Exploring the Potential of Trichoderma for the Management of Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Crops. In: Muniappan R, Heinrichs EA, editors. Integrated Pest Management of Tropical Vegetable Crops. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. page 77–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Explosive Rock Exfoliation Caught On Film [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Certification: FAA Has Made Continued Progress in Improving Its Processes for U.S. Aviation Products. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017. Report No.: GAO-17-508T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham HH. Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 14,000 Sq. Ft., Shady Past, All for Just $8.3 Million. New York Times. 2007;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0363-9762
ISSN (online)1536-0229
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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