How to format your references using the Clinical Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nuclear Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ke D-G. Unifying complexity and information. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohd-Sarip A, Verrijzer CP. Molecular biology. A higher order of silence. Science. 2004;306:1484–1485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Inaba M, Buszczak M, Yamashita YM. Nanotubes mediate niche-stem-cell signalling in the Drosophila testis. Nature. 2015;523:329–332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alkhotani A, Eldin EEMN, Zaghloul A, et al. Evaluation of neonatal jaundice in the Makkah region. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4802.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin E, Nel D, Ólafsson S. Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Ansar W. Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease. Ghosh S, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva VMTM, Gomes PS, Rodrigues AE. Use of Ion Exchange Resins in Continuous Chromatography for Sugar Processing. In: Inamuddin, Luqman M, editors. Ion Exchange Technology II: Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. page 109–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. How Ancient Ecosystems Survived One Of Earth’s Biggest Mass Extinctions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cassini Mission: Estimated Launch Costs for NASA’s Mission to Saturn. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995. Report No.: NSIAD-95-141BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caverly RS. Marketing masculinity: Male identity, boy culture, and the Boy Scouts of America 1900–1940 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mann J. America’s dangerous ‘China fantasy.’ New York Times. 2016;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0363-9762
ISSN (online)1536-0229
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles