How to format your references using the Clinical Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nuclear Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bonetta L. Protein purification: proteomics at Harvard. Nature. 2006;439:1017.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science. 2002;296:904–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Loeffler JM, Nelson D, Fischetti VA. Rapid killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a bacteriophage cell wall hydrolase. Science. 2001;294:2170–2172.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Schroeder BC, Waldegger S, Fehr S, et al. A constitutively open potassium channel formed by KCNQ1 and KCNE3. Nature. 2000;403:196–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Duhon T. How the Trading Floor Really Works. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Morales PJ. Process Simulation and Parametric Modeling for Strategic Project Management. Anderson D, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hasker K, Jiang B, Sickles RC. Estimating Consumer Surplus in eBay Computer Monitor Auctions. In: Sickles RC, Horrace WC, editors. Festschrift in Honor of Peter Schmidt: Econometric Methods and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. page 83–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti C. New Test Spots Glaucoma Years Before Conventional Tests [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/new-test-spots-glaucoma-years-before-conventional-tests/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Cost Control Problems Are Worsening. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997. Report No.: NSIAD-97-213.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Saperstein AM. Susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Cooper M. Pearl Theater to Close. New York Times. 2017;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0363-9762
ISSN (online)1536-0229
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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