How to format your references using the Clinical Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nuclear Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bynum WF. Portraits of science. Mosquitoes bite more than once. Science. 2002;295:47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
LaDeau SL, Clark JS. Rising CO2 levels and the fecundity of forest trees. Science. 2001;292:95–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Keizer K, Lindenberg S, Steg L. The spreading of disorder. Science. 2008;322:1681–1685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Xin H, Liu D, Wan M, et al. TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-beta and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase. Nature. 2007;445:559–562.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Eggleston B. The ICE Conditions of Contract: Seventh Edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Goertzel B. Real-World Reasoning: Toward Scalable, Uncertain Spatiotemporal, Contextual and Causal Inference. Geisweiller N, Coelho L, Janičić P, et al., editors. Paris: Atlantis Press; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Prenat G, Jabeur K, Di Pendina G, et al. Beyond STT-MRAM, Spin Orbit Torque RAM SOT-MRAM for High Speed and High Reliability Applications. In: Zhao W, Prenat G, editors. Spintronics-based Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 145–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. How We Found The Source Of The Mystery Signals At The Dish [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/how-we-found-source-mystery-signals-dish/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Guidelines for Reducing Guaranty Agency Reserves. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986. Report No.: HRD-86-129BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hudson KR. Student perception of teachers’ National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education and California Commission on Teacher Credentialing dispositions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2016;MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0363-9762
ISSN (online)1536-0229
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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