How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Kentsis, “Correspondence patterns: mechanisms and models of human dynamics,” Nature, vol. 441, no. 7092, pp. E5; discussion E5-6, May 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Crespi and S. Springer, “Ecology. Social slime molds meet their match,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5603, pp. 56–57, Jan. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Heil, J. Rattke, and W. Boland, “Postsecretory hydrolysis of nectar sucrose and specialization in ant/plant mutualism,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5721, pp. 560–563, Apr. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Cui, J. Su, J. Wei, Y. Hu, and F. Ge, “Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5350, Jun. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Kuzmeski, The Connectors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
L. Rutkowski, M. Korytkowski, R. Scherer, R. Tadeusiewicz, L. A. Zadeh, and J. M. Zurada, Eds., Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 15th International Conference, ICAISC 2016, Zakopane, Poland, June 12-16, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, vol. 9693. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. J. Gay, “Subtyping Supports Safe Session Substitution,” in A List of Successes That Can Change the World: Essays Dedicated to Philip Wadler on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, S. Lindley, C. McBride, P. Trinder, and D. Sannella, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 95–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Turning The Tables: Using Genetic Mutations To Fix Nature’s Problems,” IFLScience, May 17, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information and Technology Management: Achieving Sustained and Focused Governmentwide Leadership,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-01-583T, Apr. 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. L. Giles, “Faculty mentoring of undergraduate students: A qualitative phenomenological study,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Vlasic and M. W. Walsh, “G.M. Plans Big Buyouts For Retirees In Pension,” New York Times, p. B1, Jun. 02, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0018-9294
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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