How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. J. Ijspeert, “Biorobotics: using robots to emulate and investigate agile locomotion,” Science, vol. 346, no. 6206, pp. 196–203, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. M. Young and J. W. Crawford, “Interactions and self-organization in the soil-microbe complex,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5677, pp. 1634–1637, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. E. Strassmann, Y. Zhu, and D. C. Queller, “Altruism and social cheating in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6815, pp. 965–967, 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. J. P. Damodaram et al., “Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7472, Dec. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. M. Focardi, F. J. Fabozzi, and T. G. Bali, Mathematical Methods for Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
G. R. Gao, D. Qian, X. Gao, B. Chapman, and W. Chen, Eds., Network and Parallel Computing: 13th IFIP WG 10.3 International Conference, NPC 2016, Xi’an, China, October 28-29, 2016, Proceedings, vol. 9966. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Martin, J. E. Bengtsson, and R.-M. Dröes, “Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security,” in Supporting People with Dementia Using Pervasive Health Technologies, M. D. Mulvenna and C. D. Nugent, Eds. London: Springer, 2010, pp. 63–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Typhoon Seen From Space,” IFLScience, Apr. 22, 2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Space Acquisitions: Space Based Infrared System Could Benefit from Technology Insertion Planning,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-15-366, Apr. 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Greene, “Repercussions of the Dark Valley - Reenacting And Reinterpreting an Era via Fantasy Manga,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
M. W. Walsh and N. D. Schwartz, “Estimate of Economic Losses Now Up to $50 Billion,” New York Times, p. B1, Nov. 02, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0018-9294
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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