How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. J. McGillicuddy Jr, “Oceans. Eddies masquerade as planetary waves,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6054, pp. 318–319, Oct. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Xie and D. L. Black, “A CaMK IV responsive RNA element mediates depolarization-induced alternative splicing of ion channels,” Nature, vol. 410, no. 6831, pp. 936–939, Apr. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Snyder, E. Pamer, and J. Wolchok, “IMMUNOTHERAPY. Could microbial therapy boost cancer immunotherapy?,” Science, vol. 350, no. 6264, pp. 1031–1032, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. A. Venail, R. C. MacLean, T. Bouvier, M. A. Brockhurst, M. E. Hochberg, and N. Mouquet, “Diversity and productivity peak at intermediate dispersal rate in evolving metacommunities,” Nature, vol. 452, no. 7184, pp. 210–214, Mar. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. van der Heide, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
A. G. Woods and C. C. Darie, Eds., Advancements of Mass Spectrometry in Biomedical Research, vol. 806. in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 806. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
R. K. Kribich, “Refractometric Photonic Chips for Biosensing,” in Optical Nano- and Microsystems for Bioanalytics, W. Fritzsche and J. Popp, Eds., in Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 155–180.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “13 Facts About Flirting That Single — and Married — People Should Know,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AFMD-81-85, Sep. 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. J. Ratliff, “Teen parenting curriculum: A grant proposal project,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, “Looking at, and Beyond, a Lifetime of Anxiety,” New York Times, p. C2, May 21, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0018-9294
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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