How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Weinberger, “Export-control laws worry academics,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7261, p. 156, Sep. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Khosla and Y. Tang, “Chemistry. A new route to designer antibiotics,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5720, pp. 367–368, Apr. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Oerlemans, D. Dahl-Jensen, and V. Masson-Delmotte, “Ice sheets and sea level,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5790, pp. 1043–5; author reply 1043-5, Aug. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. K. Kim et al., “Planar cell polarity acts through septins to control collective cell movement and ciliogenesis,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5997, pp. 1337–1340, Sep. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Simon and J. Ospina, Closed-Form Solutions for Drug Transport through Controlled-Release Devices in Two and Three Dimensions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
P. I. Azócar Fernández, Paradigms in Cartography: An Epistemological Review of the 20th and 21st Centuries. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Cendón et al., “An Access Selection Prototype Based on IEEE 802.21,” in Mobile Lightweight Wireless Systems: Second International ICST Conference, MOBILIGHT 2010, Barcelona, Spain, May 10-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, P. Chatzimisios, C. Verikoukis, I. Santamaría, M. Laddomada, and O. Hoffmann, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp. 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Mathematics, Spaghetti Alla Carbonara And You,” IFLScience, 19-Jun-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Payments in Lieu of Taxes for Federal Property,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 116666, Oct. 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. R. Wheat, “Effects of intercropping switchgrass in managed pine stands on plant communities and white-tailed deer forage production,” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, “A Storyteller’s Private Dystopias,” New York Times, p. C1, 11-May-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
ISSN (print)1558-7916

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