How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Lieberman, “Neuroscience. Synapses, language, and being human,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6161, pp. 944–945, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Jin and R. M. Costa, “Start/stop signals emerge in nigrostriatal circuits during sequence learning,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7305, pp. 457–462, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Leone, P. F. Ferrari, and E. Palagi, “Different yawns, different functions? Testing social hypotheses on spontaneous yawning in Theropithecus gelada,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4010, Feb. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. David, T. Bjorksten, K. Fowler, and A. Pomiankowski, “Condition-dependent signalling of genetic variation in stalk-eyed flies,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6792, pp. 186–188, Jul. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. R. Hitchner, Financial Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
A. F. AbuRahma and J. J. Bergan, Eds., Noninvasive Peripheral Arterial Diagnosis, 1st ed. London: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-B. Jang, H.-P. Lee, K.-M. Hwang, and Y.-C. Song, “Prediction of Prestress Force on Grouted Tendon by Experimental Modal Analysis,” in Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010, T. Proulx, Ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2011, pp. 33–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Best View Yet Of A Stellar Ghost,” IFLScience, Aug. 06, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Review of HEW Guidelines for Acquiring Automatic Data Processing Systems Under the Social Security Act,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-79-126, Oct. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. J. Urquidi, “Condolences to all of you: Late eulogies of a half-complacent birthday boy,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “The Court Changes the Game,” New York Times, p. A21, Jun. 30, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
ISSN (print)1558-7916

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