How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Hanash, “Disease proteomics,” Nature, vol. 422, no. 6928, pp. 226–232, Mar. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Silk and J. Chluba, “Astronomy. Next steps for cosmology,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6184, pp. 586–588, May 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Cacace, G. de Petris, and A. Troiani, “Experimental detection of tetranitrogen,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5554, pp. 480–481, Jan. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I. Lee, D. Yoganarasimha, G. Rao, and J. J. Knierim, “Comparison of population coherence of place cells in hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 6998, pp. 456–459, Jul. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O. Manasreh, Introduction to Nanomaterials and Devices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
B. G. Sidharth, Ed., A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century, vol. 149. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Elhimer, G. Harran, T. Deloze, D. Szubert, Y. Hoarau, and M. Braza, “Naturally Separated Turbulent Flow Around Two Cylinders in Tandem at High Reynolds Number by Time-Resolved PIV,” in Advances in Fluid-Structure Interaction: Updated contributions reflecting new findings presented at the ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction, 17-21 June 2013, St John Resort, Mykonos, Greece, M. Braza, A. Bottaro, and M. Thompson, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “This Is What The Underside Of An Iceberg Looks Like,” IFLScience, Jan. 22, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “FCC: Facilitate Future Development of Paging Systems and Implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act, and Competitive Bidding,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, OGC-97-31, Mar. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. G. Payne, “The experience of caring for women with drug or alcohol problems in the general hospital,” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, “Catching a Running Partner at the Trials,With a Chance to Pass,” New York Times, p. B11, Jun. 28, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
ISSN (print)1558-7916

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