How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Heki, “Geophysics. A tale of two earthquakes,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6036, pp. 1390–1391, Jun. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Lane and W. Martin, “The energetics of genome complexity,” Nature, vol. 467, no. 7318, pp. 929–934, Oct. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. P. A. den Boer, B. Baer, and J. J. Boomsma, “Seminal fluid mediates ejaculate competition in social insects,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5972, pp. 1506–1509, Mar. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X.-Y. Wan et al., “Real-time light scattering tracking of gold nanoparticles- bioconjugated respiratory syncytial virus infecting HEp-2 cells,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4529, Mar. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. S. Paolella, Fundamental Probability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
E. H. Lieb, The Mathematics of the Bose Gas and its Condensation, vol. 34. in Oberwolfach Seminars, vol. 34. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
L. A. Buatois, C. C. Labandeira, M. G. Mángano, A. Cohen, and S. Voigt, “The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution,” in The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 2: Mesozoic and Cenozoic, M. G. Mángano and L. A. Buatois, Eds., in Topics in Geobiology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, pp. 179–263.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Spain Has First Case Of Diphtheria In 28 Years Thanks To Anti-Vaxxers,” IFLScience, Jun. 08, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Amtrak: Early Progress Made in Implementing Strategic and Business Plan, but Obstacles Remain,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-95-227, Jun. 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. K. Zurheide, “Hydromorphology of anomalous bright loamy soils on the mid-Atlantic coastal plain,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. G. Gustines, “The Illustrated Stories of Teenagers, Told With Humor and a Light Heart,” New York Times, p. B6, May 16, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
ISSN (print)1558-7916

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