How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. P. Binzel, “Human spaceflight: Find asteroids to get to Mars,” Nature, vol. 514, no. 7524, pp. 559–561, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. C. Harper and M. S. Sigman, “Three-dimensional correlation of steric and electronic free energy relationships guides asymmetric propargylation,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6051, pp. 1875–1878, Sep. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. A. Gugliotti, D. L. Feldheim, and B. E. Eaton, “RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5672, pp. 850–852, May 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.-H. Kim et al., “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5875, pp. 507–511, Apr. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Battu, New Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
H. Sawai, Ed., Biological Functions for Information and Communication Technologies: Theory and Inspiration, vol. 320. in Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol. 320. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Koshmanenko and M. Dudkin, “Rigged Hilbert Spaces,” in The Method of Rigged Spaces in Singular Perturbation Theory of Self-Adjoint Operators, M. Dudkin, Ed., in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 61–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Sound Waves Break The Blood-Brain Barrier,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “A Long-Term Plan Is Needed To Guide DOE and Multiprogram Laboratory Research and Development Activities,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-84-30, Jan. 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Rojas, “ASD: A family approach curriculum,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, “Next Stop: An a Cappella Subway Journey,” New York Times, p. C6, Dec. 12, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
ISSN (print)1558-7916

Other styles