How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. M. Heimsath, “Geochemistry. Limits of soil production?,” Science, vol. 343, no. 6171, pp. 617–618, Feb. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Owen and S. Jobling, “Environmental science: The hidden costs of flexible fertility,” Nature, vol. 485, no. 7399, p. 441, May 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. He, L. Gao, and N. Ma, “One-step instant synthesis of protein-conjugated quantum dots at room temperature,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2825, Oct. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Trabucchi et al., “The RNA-binding protein KSRP promotes the biogenesis of a subset of microRNAs,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7249, pp. 1010–1014, Jun. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Samuels, Reading the American Novel 1780-1865. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
N.-T. Nguyen and H. A. Le-Thi, Eds., Transactions on Computational Intelligence XIII, vol. 8342. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Boukayoua, J. Vossaert, B. De Decker, and V. Naessens, “Claim-Based versus Network-Based Identity Management: A Hybrid Approach,” in Security and Privacy in Mobile Information and Communication Systems: 4th International Conference, MobiSec 2012, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, June 25-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, A. U. Schmidt, G. Russello, I. Krontiris, and S. Lian, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 38–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Shell’s Abandoned Well And The Myth Of The Arctic Oil Land Grab,” IFLScience, Oct. 02, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority: Contracting Practices Do Not Always Comply with Airport Lease Requirements,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-36, Mar. 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Wolfenden, “Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “For New Trump Neighbors, Proximity Breeds Discontent,” New York Times, p. 146, Jun. 03, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
ISSN (print)1558-7916

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