How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Smith, “Development. Nota bene: a SAC of crumbs and stardust,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5551, p. 2498, Dec. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Zeng and R. Song, “Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3359, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. W. Oppo, J. F. McManus, and J. L. Cullen, “Palaeo-oceanography: Deepwater variability in the Holocene epoch,” Nature, vol. 422, no. 6929, p. 277, Mar. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Hara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Akuzawa, R. Hirai, H. Kobayashi, and K. Sato, “Rer1 and calnexin regulate endoplasmic reticulum retention of a peripheral myelin protein 22 mutant that causes type 1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6992, Nov. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. A. Rosier, M. A. Martens, and J. R. Thomas, Global New Drug Development. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
A. Cohen, M. Porath, A. Clarke, H. Bai, C. Leggo, and K. Meyer, Eds., Speaking of Teaching…: Inclinations, Inspirations, and Innerworkings. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Bartelmann et al., “Next Challenges,” in Questions of Modern Cosmology: Galileo’s Legacy, M. D’Onofrio and C. Burigana, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 429–501.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Emperor Penguins Are Willing To Relocate,” IFLScience, Jun. 20, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Fundamental Changes Needed To Achieve Effective Enforcement of Radio Communication Regulations,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-159895, Nov. 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Han, “Mechanistic Consequences of Cardiac Oxidative Stress,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, “Russia Is Persuaded To Alter Statement To Call for Inclusion,” New York Times, p. SP11, Sep. 15, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.
ISSN (print)1051-8223
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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