How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Pelkmans, “Cell Biology. Using cell-to-cell variability--a new era in molecular biology,” Science, vol. 336, no. 6080, pp. 425–426, Apr. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. M. Trent and J. W. Touchman, “Cancer. The gene topography of cancer,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5853, pp. 1079–1080, Nov. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. E. Shevenell, J. P. Kennett, and D. W. Lea, “Middle Miocene Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5691, pp. 1766–1770, Sep. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. E. Walden et al., “Structure of dual function iron regulatory protein 1 complexed with ferritin IRE-RNA,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5807, pp. 1903–1908, Dec. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. R. Denny and S. J. Butterworth, A Guide to Canine and Feline Orthopaedic Surgery. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
C. Devonshire-Ellis, A. Scott, and S. Woollard, Eds., Setting Up Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprises in China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Schneider, “Comment on: EU Export Specialization Patterns in Selected Accession Countries,” in Structural Change and Exchange Rate Dynamics: The Economics of EU Eastern Enlargement, P. J. J. Welfens and A. Wziątek-Kubiak, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 73–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Now With More Materials And More Colour, 2015 Is The Year To Try 3D Printing At Home,” IFLScience, Jan. 08, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “High Definition Television: The Effects of Standards on U.S. Entertainment Industries,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-90-33, Mar. 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. C. Barkley, “Mars rover - Laser focusing and optimization,” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. R. Quain, “Cars Will Talk to One Another. Exactly How Is Less Certain,” New York Times, p. B4, Mar. 09, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.
ISSN (print)1051-8223
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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