How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Koen, “Nuts & bolts,” Nature, vol. 431, no. 7005, p. 228, Sep. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Iijima and A. Iwasaki, “T cell memory. A local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells,” Science, vol. 346, no. 6205, pp. 93–98, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. W. Powner, B. Gerland, and J. D. Sutherland, “Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7244, pp. 239–242, May 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Zaban, W. Liu, X. Jiang, and P. Nick, “Plant cells use auxin efflux to explore geometry,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5852, Jul. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. B. Hitz, J. Ewing, and J. Hecht, Introduction to Laser Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
R. Merzouki, Intelligent Mechatronic Systems: Modeling, Control and Diagnosis. London: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Chen and R. Santhanam, “Improved Algorithms for Sparse MAX-SAT and MAX-k-CSP,” in Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing -- SAT 2015: 18th International Conference, Austin, TX, USA, September 24-27, 2015, Proceedings, M. Heule and S. Weaver, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 33–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Treating ‘Stage 0’ Breast Cancer Doesn’t Always Save Women’s Lives So Should We Screen For It?,” IFLScience, Aug. 27, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Review of the Administration of Research and Demonstration Grants by the Rehabilitation Services Administration,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-79-103, Jul. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. A. Hrivnak, “Extending a model of leader -member exchange development: Individual and dyadic effects of personality, similarity and liking,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
J. Eligon and K. Nolan, “Angry After Milwaukee Police Shooting, Protesters Turn Against News Media, Too,” New York Times, p. A8, Aug. 16, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.
ISSN (print)1051-8223
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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