How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. R. Berger, “The mosaic nature of Australopithecus sediba. Introduction,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6129, pp. 163–165, Apr. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. McCormick and D. Ganem, “The kaposin B protein of KSHV activates the p38/MK2 pathway and stabilizes cytokine mRNAs,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5710, pp. 739–741, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. James, J. W. Pitchford, and M. J. Plank, “James et al. reply,” Nature, vol. 500, no. 7463, pp. E2-3, Aug. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Chen et al., “Atomically defined mechanism for proton transfer to a buried redox centre in a protein,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6788, pp. 814–817, Jun. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Sinclair, Volatility Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
C. Heij, Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: Linear Systems, Identification and Control. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J. H. Paik, K. Kettunen, D. Pal, and K. Järvelin, “Frequent Case Generation in Ad Hoc Retrieval of Three Indian Languages – Bengali, Gujarati and Marathi,” in Multilingual Information Access in South Asian Languages: Second International Workshop, FIRE 2010, Gandhinagar, India, February 19-21, 2010 and Third International Workshop, FIRE 2011, Bombay, India, December 2-4, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, P. Majumder, M. Mitra, P. Bhattacharyya, L. V. Subramaniam, D. Contractor, and P. Rosso, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 38–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, “Spectacular Footage Of Narwhals Reveals The True Purpose Of Their Tusks,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Cost Overrun on the Aeropropulsion Systems Test Facility,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, PLRD-82-123, Sep. 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Fahmy, “Intoxicated by music: A content analysis of the prevalence of alcohol, illicit substances, and tobacco in popular music from 2000 to 2011,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Schuman, “A Heartland’s Flickering Pulse,” New York Times, p. B1, Aug. 22, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Affect. Comput.
ISSN (print)1949-3045
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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