How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Zaanen, “Quantum critical electron systems: the uncharted sign worlds,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5867, pp. 1205–1207, Feb. 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Laskar and M. Gastineau, “Existence of collisional trajectories of Mercury, Mars and Venus with the Earth,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7248, pp. 817–819, Jun. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Castelnovo, R. Moessner, and S. L. Sondhi, “Magnetic monopoles in spin ice,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7174, pp. 42–45, Jan. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Jiang, A. Lee, J. Chen, M. Cadene, B. T. Chait, and R. MacKinnon, “The open pore conformation of potassium channels,” Nature, vol. 417, no. 6888, pp. 523–526, May 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Todeschini and A. Baccini, Handbook of Bibliometric Indicators. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2016.
An edited book
S. Ramanathan, Ed., Thin Film Metal-Oxides: Fundamentals and Applications in Electronics and Energy. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Caravenna and P. Dai Pra, “Variabili aleatorie discrete: esempi e applicazioni,” in Probabilità: Un’introduzione attraverso modelli e applicazioni, P. Dai Pra, Ed. Milano: Springer, 2013, pp. 189–230.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Researchers Take Steps Towards Developing A ‘Universal’ Vaccine To Cure All Cancers,” IFLScience, Jun. 08, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Managing Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-AIMD-97-38, Jan. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. I. Garcia, “Variable selection for models with missing data,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. G. Gustines, “Funny, but Not Funny Enough for The New Yorker,” New York Times, p. C17, Sep. 21, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Affect. Comput.
ISSN (print)1949-3045
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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