How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Donath, “Computer science. Virtually trustworthy,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5834, pp. 53–54, Jul. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Audet and R. Bürgmann, “Possible control of subduction zone slow-earthquake periodicity by silica enrichment,” Nature, vol. 510, no. 7505, pp. 389–392, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Nakatsuji, N. Kiyohara, and T. Higo, “Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature,” Nature, vol. 527, no. 7577, pp. 212–215, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Zhang, Y. Zhong, D. Cha, and P. Wang, “A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2326, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. McPhee, A Companion to the French Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
M. Antona and C. Stephanidis, Eds., Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Users and Context Diversity: 10th International Conference, UAHCI 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part III, vol. 9739. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. D. Force, P. N. Symbas, and N. P. Symbas, “Esophagus and Diaphragm,” in Anatomic Basis of Tumor Surgery, W. C. Wood, C. A. Staley, and J. E. Skandalakis, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp. 265–297.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Scientists Discover A Process That Regulates Forgetting,” IFLScience, 17-Mar-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Costly Requirements for Certain Control Towers, Navigation Aids, and Airport Lights,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-164497, Dec. 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Cai, “3D Numerical Modeling of Dry/Wet Contact Mechanics for Rough, Multilayered Elastic-Plastic Solid Surfaces and Effects of Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity During Separation with Applications,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. MacFARQUHAR and S. Kishkovsky, “Russian Theater Director Fired for Offending Christians,” New York Times, p. A3, 30-Mar-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Affect. Comput.
ISSN (print)1949-3045
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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