How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Dainton, “Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk?,” Nature, vol. 410, no. 6826, pp. 324–5; disussion 326, Mar. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Anderson and T. Moore, “The economics of information security,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5799, pp. 610–613, Oct. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. J. Mosey, M. H. Müser, and T. K. Woo, “Molecular mechanisms for the functionality of lubricant additives,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5715, pp. 1612–1615, Mar. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. Liang, M. Bockrath, D. Bozovic, J. H. Hafner, M. Tinkham, and H. Park, “Fabry - Perot interference in a nanotube electron waveguide,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6838, pp. 665–669, Jun. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. McGee, Bioethics for beginners. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
K. T. Atanassov et al., Eds., Novel Developments in Uncertainty Representation and Processing: Advances in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets – Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets, 1st ed. 2016., vol. 401. 1st ed. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 401. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J. J. Robert-McComb, “The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis,” in The Active Female: Health Issues Throughout The Lifespan, J. J. Robert-McComb, R. Norman, and M. Zumwalt, Eds., Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008, pp. 81–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “How DNA Is Helping Us Fight Back Against Pest Invasions,” IFLScience, May 27, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “DOD Business Systems Modernization: Limited Progress in Development of Business Enterprise Architecture and Oversight of Information Technology Investments,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-731R, May 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W.-Y. Lu, “The performance practice of Buddhist baiqi in contemporary Taiwan,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “JUSTICES, 5-4, BACK DETAINEE APPEALS FOR GUANTÁNAMO,” New York Times, p. A1, Jun. 13, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Affect. Comput.
ISSN (print)1949-3045
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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