How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Savage, “Modelling: Predictive yield,” Nature, vol. 501, no. 7468, pp. S10-1, Sep. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. M. Gardner and P. Walter, “Unfolded proteins are Ire1-activating ligands that directly induce the unfolded protein response,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6051, pp. 1891–1894, Sep. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Gil, A. Kott, and A.-L. Barabási, “A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5659, Jul. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X.-Y. Yu et al., “Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2886, Oct. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. M. F. Prazeres, Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
L. Cao, Y. Feng, and J. Zhong, Eds., Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 6th International Conference, ADMA 2010, Chongqing, China, November 19-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part I, vol. 6440. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. A. Sobotka, D. G. Harrison, and M. Fudim, “The Endpoint on Measuring the Clinical Effects of Renal Denervation: What Are the Best Surrogates,” in Renal Denervation: A New Approach to Treatment of Resistant Hypertension, R. R. Heuser, M. Schlaich, and H. Sievert, Eds. London: Springer, 2015, pp. 25–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing.

Blog post
K. Evans, “You Will Probably Be Stereotyped If You Use These Words,” IFLScience, 17-Nov-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “The Role of Field Operations in the Federal Communications Commission’s Regulatory Structure,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, CED-78-151, Aug. 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. M. Monterosa, “Digital Citizenship District-Wide: Examining the Organizational Evolution of an Initiative,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Barker and N. Schweber, “A Woman Called ‘Sweet and Shy,’ Now Accused of Killing Her Newborn,” New York Times, p. A25, 06-Oct-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Affect. Comput.
ISSN (print)1949-3045
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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