How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laybourn-Parry, J. (2009). Microbiology. No place too cold. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1521–1522.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekert, A., & Renner, R. (2014). The ultimate physical limits of privacy. Nature, 507(7493), 443–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginsberg, N. S., Garner, S. R., & Hau, L. V. (2007). Coherent control of optical information with matter wave dynamics. Nature, 445(7128), 623–626.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu, C., Li, H., Zeng, X. C., Wang, E. G., & Meng, S. (2013). Quantized water transport: ideal desalination through graphyne-4 membrane. Scientific reports, 3, 3163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, V., Kruopis, J., & Nikulin, M. S. (2011). Non-parametric Tests for Censored Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lax, P. D. (2014). Calculus With Applications. (M. S. Terrell, Ed.) (2nd ed. 2014.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhojwani, S. S., & Dantu, P. K. (2013). Tissue and Cell Culture. In P. K. Dantu (Ed.), Plant Tissue Culture: An Introductory Text (pp. 39–50). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 24). Teens Invent Condoms That Change Color When They Detect STDs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings (No. NSIAD-96-77). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreno, S. (2009). Mother-child relationships: Females behind bars and their children (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harwood, J. (2016, October 7). Republicans are battling themselves. New York Times, p. A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laybourn-Parry 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ekert and Renner 2014; Laybourn-Parry 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ekert and Renner 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Criminol.
ISSN (print)1573-3750
ISSN (online)1572-8315

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