How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buratowski, S. (2008). Transcription. Gene expression--where to start? Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5909), 1804–1805.
A journal article with 2 authors
McLennan, M. R., & Hockings, K. J. (2014). Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops. Scientific reports, 4, 5956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allison, K. R., Brynildsen, M. P., & Collins, J. J. (2011). Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides. Nature, 473(7346), 216–220.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pälike, H., Norris, R. D., Herrle, J. O., Wilson, P. A., Coxall, H. K., Lear, C. H., et al. (2006). The heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5807), 1894–1898.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wegener, E. (2003). Montagegerechte Anlagenplanung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gorgulho, A. (2013). Intelligent Financial Portfolio Composition based on Evolutionary Computation Strategies. (R. F. M. F. Neves & N. C. G. Horta, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brunner, R. D., & Lynch, A. H. (2010). Reframing the Context. In A. H. Lynch (Ed.), Adaptive Governance and Climate Change (pp. 261–315). Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, January 5). People Living Near Busy Roads Found To Have Higher Rates Of Dementia. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Hazardous Weather Detection and Dissemination Systems (No. T-RCED-87-43). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fresolone, C. (2012). The pedagogical use of Gerald Near’s “Chantworks” (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, July 2). Roberts Is at Court’s Helm, But He Isn’t Yet in Control. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buratowski 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Buratowski 2008; McLennan and Hockings 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McLennan and Hockings 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pälike et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Criminol.
ISSN (print)1573-3750
ISSN (online)1572-8315

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