How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmollinger, J. (2002). Gaining a lot from translation. Nature, 418(6894), 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kastan, M. B., & Bartek, J. (2004). Cell-cycle checkpoints and cancer. Nature, 432(7015), 316–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reiner, S. L., Sallusto, F., & Lanzavecchia, A. (2007). Division of labor with a workforce of one: challenges in specifying effector and memory T cell fate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 622–625.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shiow, L. R., Rosen, D. B., Brdicková, N., Xu, Y., An, J., Lanier, L. L., et al. (2006). CD69 acts downstream of interferon-alpha/beta to inhibit S1P1 and lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs. Nature, 440(7083), 540–544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox, C. (2014). An Introduction to LTE. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ziemke, T., Balkenius, C., & Hallam, J. (Eds.). (2012). From Animals to Animats 12: 12th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2012, Odense, Denmark, August 27-30, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7426). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moisan, M., & Pelletier, J. (2012). Introduction to the Physics of HF Discharges. In J. Pelletier (Ed.), Physics of Collisional Plasmas: Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges (pp. 337–385). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, September 18). This Ultrathin “Invisibility Cloak” Makes It Impossible To See Microscopic Objects. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). [Review of DOD Programs Funded With R&D Appropriations] (No. B-220682). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight, A. K. (2017). Beyond Leveraged Purchasing: Using Strengthened Buyer/Supplier Relationships to Accomplish Sustainable Strategic Sourcing and Smarter Single Source Acquisitions (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, May 20). ‘Roots,’ the Series That Had Everyone Talking. New York Times, p. C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmollinger 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kastan and Bartek 2004; Schmollinger 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kastan and Bartek 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Shiow et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Criminol.
ISSN (print)1573-3750
ISSN (online)1572-8315

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