How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salamini, F. (2003). Plant Biology. Hormones and the green revolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5642), 71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenkranz, J. A., & Grace, A. A. (2002). Dopamine-mediated modulation of odour-evoked amygdala potentials during pavlovian conditioning. Nature, 417(6886), 282–287.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samuelsson, A., Towers, T. L., & Ravetch, J. V. (2001). Anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG mediated through the inhibitory Fc receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5503), 484–486.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Velikov, K. P., Christova, C. G., Dullens, R. P. A., & van Blaaderen, A. (2002). Layer-by-layer growth of binary colloidal crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5565), 106–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell, A. K. (2014). Intracellular Calcium. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bajo, J., Escalona, M. J., Giroux, S., Hoffa-Dąbrowska, P., Julián, V., Novais, P., et al. (Eds.). (2016). Highlights of Practical Applications of Scalable Multi-Agent Systems. The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2016, Sevilla, Spain, June 1-3, 2016. Proceedings (Vol. 616). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Trojanowski, K., & Wierzchoń, S. T. (2006). A Comparison of Clonal Selection Based Algorithms for Non-Stationary Optimisation Tasks. In M. A. Kłopotek, S. T. Wierzchoń, & K. Trojanowski (Eds.), Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining: Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM’06 Conference held in Ustrón, Poland, June 19-22, 2006 (pp. 41–52). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, June 1). This Machine Removes CO2 From The Air And Turns It Into Fertilizer. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Airfield Pavement: Keeping Nation’s Runways in Good Condition Could Require Substantially Higher Spending (No. RCED-98-226). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, E. (2017). Predicting Home Purchase Location in DC: An Intersectional Approach (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, June 8). Books of Wonder Coming to West Side. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Salamini 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Rosenkranz and Grace 2002; Salamini 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosenkranz and Grace 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Velikov et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Criminol.
ISSN (print)1573-3750
ISSN (online)1572-8315

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