How to format your references using the IEEE Potentials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Potentials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Oppenheim, “Physics. Implementing a quantum computation by free falling,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5764, pp. 1106–1107, Feb. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. E. Cohen and R. E. Gürtler, “Modeling household transmission of American trypanosomiasis,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5530, pp. 694–698, Jul. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Csankovszki, P. McDonel, and B. J. Meyer, “Recruitment and spreading of the C. elegans dosage compensation complex along X chromosomes,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5661, pp. 1182–1185, Feb. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Kaufmann et al., “Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5974, pp. 85–89, Apr. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Denison and G. Y. Ren, Luke Him Sau Architect. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
J. Kluve, Active Labor Market Policies in Europe: Performance and Perspectives. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Nagy, “Interactive, Mobile, Distributed Pattern Recognition,” in Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2005: 13th International Conference, Cagliari, Italy, September 6-8, 2005. Proceedings, F. Roli and S. Vitulano, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Potentials.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Irish Beach Reappears Within A Few Days After Disappearing 33 Years Ago,” IFLScience, 08-May-2017. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-HEHS-99-117, May 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. A. Liyakath, “Reconfigurable Antenna and RF Circuits Using Multi-Layer Stretchable Conductors,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Pelé Remains the Last Word in a Changed World,” New York Times, p. SP8, 06-Jun-2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Potentials
AbbreviationIEEE Potentials
ISSN (print)0278-6648
ScopeStrategy and Management
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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