How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, “It could be worse,” Nature, vol. 425, no. 6959, p. 745, Oct. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Bhaskaran and R. Russell, “Kinetic redistribution of native and misfolded RNAs by a DEAD-box chaperone,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7165, pp. 1014–1018, Oct. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Obayashi, J. Yoshimitsu, and Y. Fukao, “Tearing of stagnant slab,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5931, pp. 1173–1175, May 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Pushp et al., “Extending universal nodal excitations optimizes superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5935, pp. 1689–1693, Jun. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. D. Chiasson, Geothermal Heat Pump and Heat Engine Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
B. H. Davison, B. R. Evans, M. Finkelstein, and J. D. McMillan, Eds., Twenty-Sixth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Tang and P. Zhang, “Single-Molecule Toroics and Multinuclear Lanthanide Single-Molecule Magnets,” in Lanthanide Single Molecule Magnets, P. Zhang, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, pp. 127–166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Art And Science Combine To Reveal The Inner Workings Of Our DNA,” IFLScience, Jul. 21, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Test and Evaluation: Description of Projects in DOD’s Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-91-111S, May 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. S. Jenkins, “Comprehensive support for children of incarcerated parents and their families,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Bell Rings Again at Yankee Stadium,” New York Times, p. D5, Jun. 05, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0018-9197
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles