How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. V. Tollestrup, “Robert Rathbun Wilson (1914-2000),” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6776, p. 350, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Tong and S. A. Engel, “Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical blind-spot representation,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6834, pp. 195–199, May 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. C. Osborne, S. G. Lisberger, and W. Bialek, “A sensory source for motor variation,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7057, pp. 412–416, Sep. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Zhang, C. Xie, Q. Wang, and Z. Liu, “Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson’s rats,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6811, Oct. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Q. A. Xu and T. L. Madden, Analytical Methods for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Y. N. Toulouevski, Electric Arc Furnace with Flat Bath: Achievements and Prospects. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Mocci, A. Laaksonen, Y.-L. Wang, G. Saba, A. Lai, and F. Cesare Marincola, “CompChem and NMR Probing Ionic Liquids,” in The Structure of Ionic Liquids, R. Caminiti and L. Gontrani, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 97–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Baby Mammal Hatches From Egg,” IFLScience, May 26, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Security: Flight and Cabin Crew Member Security Training Strengthened, but Better Planning and Internal Controls Needed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-05-781, Sep. 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. H. Brown, “An Examination of Executive Function, Stress, and Adolescent Attachment to Caregivers in a Social Neuroscience Model Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD),” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. G. Gustines, “A Bird? A Plane? La Borinqueña!,” New York Times, p. MB4, Jun. 12, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0018-9197
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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