How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Hillery, “Physics. Quantum walks through a waveguide maze,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5998, pp. 1477–1478, Sep. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. B. Gurdon and D. A. Melton, “Nuclear reprogramming in cells,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5909, pp. 1811–1815, Dec. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Asaadi, N. M. Ribe, and F. Sobouti, “Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell,” Nature, vol. 473, no. 7348, pp. 501–504, May 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. A. Dominguez, H. R. Chiang, M. Sukhwani, K. E. Orwig, and R. A. Reijo Pera, “Human germ cell formation in xenotransplants of induced pluripotent stem cells carrying X chromosome aneuploidies,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6432, Sep. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Riehle, Frequency Standards. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2003.
An edited book
M. Wu, Educational Measurement for Applied Researchers: Theory into Practice. Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. D. Lonborg and C. B. Travis, “Living Longer, Healthier Lives,” in Women Over 50: Psychological Perspectives, V. Muhlbauer and J. C. Chrisler, Eds., Boston, MA: Springer US, 2007, pp. 53–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Why Meat Is Important In The Global Battle Against Food Insecurity,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “ADP Budget: Potential Reductions to the Department of the Army’s Budget Request,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-89-69BR, Sep. 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. I. Emenyonu, “Barriers to HIV care in rural Uganda,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. G. Gustines, “Robert Kirkman Plans New Comic Book Series,” New York Times, p. C3, Oct. 05, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0018-9197
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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