How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Bardeen, “Electron transfer. Sometimes you can go home again,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5529, pp. 444–445, Jul. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Goddéris and Y. Donnadieu, “Carbon cycling and snowball Earth,” Nature, vol. 456, no. 7224, pp. E8; author reply E9-10, Dec. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Dhakal, B. Black, and S. Mohanty, “Introduction of impermeable actin-staining molecules to mammalian cells by optoporation,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6553, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. A. Noginov et al., “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7259, pp. 1110–1112, Aug. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-G. Elias, Macromolecules. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2006.
An edited book
M. Ibragimov, Heavy-Tailed Distributions and Robustness in Economics and Finance, vol. 214. in Lecture Notes in Statistics, vol. 214. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Noll, “The Foundations of Mechanics,” in Non-linear Continuum Theories, G. Grioli and C. Truesdell, Eds., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 159–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Astronomers Have Spotted The Most Distant Oxygen In The Universe,” IFLScience, Jun. 16, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Agriculture ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-90-62FS, Jun. 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. A. Puebla, “The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Rojas, “Prosecutors Set to Begin in Retrial of Patz Suspect,” New York Times, p. A19, Oct. 18, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0018-9197
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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