How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Crocker, “The road to fraud starts with a single step,” Nature, vol. 479, no. 7372, p. 151, Nov. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. J. Conard and M. Bolus, “Anthropology. Chronicling modern human’s arrival in Europe,” Science, vol. 348, no. 6236, pp. 754–756, May 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Wang, C. Song, and A.-L. Barabási, “Quantifying long-term scientific impact,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6154, pp. 127–132, Oct. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Mora et al., “Ecology. Coral reefs and the global network of Marine Protected Areas,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5781, pp. 1750–1751, Jun. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. N. Corns, A History of Seventeenth-Century English Literature. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
E. F. Milone and C. Sterken, Eds., Astronomical Photometry: Past, Present, and Future, 1st ed., vol. 373. New York, NY: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Arata, K. Amano, K. Yamakawa, and A. Arata, “Central Respiratory Failure in a Mouse Model Depends on the Genetic Background of the Host,” in New Frontiers in Respiratory Control: XIth Annual Oxford Conference on Modeling and Control of Breathing, I. Homma, H. Onimaru, and Y. Fukuchi, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp. 21–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Plants Use Quantum Mechanics To Make Photosynthesis More Efficient,” IFLScience, 25-Oct-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Improved Use of Cargo Space on Ammunition Ships by BetterPlanning,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-133025, Mar. 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. W. Williamson, “Measurements and analysis of extinction in vitiated flame sheets,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, “Personal Finance Advice, Taken to the Woodshed,” New York Times, p. BU6, 30-Dec-2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0018-9197
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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