How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Butt, “Beyond the myth of the supernova-remnant origin of cosmic rays,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7256, pp. 701–704, Aug. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Rouyer and A. Chatterjee, “Circadian clocks: A receptor for subtle temperature changes,” Nature, vol. 527, no. 7579, pp. 449–451, Nov. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. W. Vaupel, J. R. Carey, and K. Christensen, “Aging. It’s never too late,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5640, pp. 1679–1681, Sep. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. N. Economo et al., “Distinct descending motor cortex pathways and their roles in movement,” Nature, vol. 563, no. 7729, pp. 79–84, Nov. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Pan, J. Wang, and M. Li, Algorithmic and Artificial Intelligence Methods for Protein Bioinformatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
M.-P. Gleizes, A. Omicini, and F. Zambonelli, Eds., Engineering Societies in the Agents World V: 5th International Workshop, ESAW 2004, Toulouse, France, October 20-22, 2004. Revised Selected and Invited Papers, vol. 3451. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Zamani, “Nano-Bio Structures Developed via Electrophoresis,” in Thin Films and Coatings in Biology, S. Nazarpour, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013, pp. 145–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Typhoon Seen From Space,” IFLScience, Apr. 22, 2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Army Training: Improvements Are Needed in 5-Ton Truck Driver Training and Supervision,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-01-436, Apr. 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. L. Brown, “Examining leadership and the laminated glass ceiling: Gender and leadership traits,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
R. R. Ruiz and B. Rothenberg, “Exceptions for Drugs Fall Under Scrutiny,” New York Times, p. B11, Sep. 15, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0018-9197
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles