How to format your references using the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eiler, J. M. (2007). Geology. On the origins of granites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5814), 951–952.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens, B., & Feingold, G. (2009). Untangling aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in a buffered system. Nature, 461(7264), 607–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohmann, C., Myhr, K. L., & Wong, R. O. L. (2002). Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature, 418(6894), 177–181.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xiao, H., Murakami, H., Suga, H., & Ferré-D’Amaré, A. R. (2008). Structural basis of specific tRNA aminoacylation by a small in vitro selected ribozyme. Nature, 454(7202), 358–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paultre, P. (2013). Dynamics of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Griebel, M. (2007). Numerical Simulation in Molecular Dynamics: Numerics, Algorithms, Parallelization, Applications (G. Zumbusch & S. Knapek, Eds.; Vol. 5). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Canali, S., & Corbellini, G. (2006). Clinical, Epidemiological, and Genetic Investigations on Thalassemia and Malaria in Italy. In P. Arese (Ed.), Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects (pp. 55–80). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, June 1). Hybrid Species Are On The March – With The Help Of Humans. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Schools and Workplaces: An Overview of Successful and Unsuccessful Practices (PEMD-95-28). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, B. (2017). Repercussions of the Dark Valley - Reenacting And Reinterpreting an Era via Fantasy Manga [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF. (2010, April 9). Motion Comic Recalls Rescuers In Holocaust. New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eiler, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Eiler, 2007; Stevens & Feingold, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stevens & Feingold, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lohmann et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xiao et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Journal of Music Therapy
AbbreviationNord. J. Music Ther.
ISSN (print)0809-8131
ISSN (online)1944-8260
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Phychiatric Mental Health

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