How to format your references using the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger, K. (2003). The learning curve. Nature, 424(6945), 234–235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelliher, T., & Walbot, V. (2012). Hypoxia triggers meiotic fate acquisition in maize. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6092), 345–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fiser, J., Chiu, C., & Weliky, M. (2004). Small modulation of ongoing cortical dynamics by sensory input during natural vision. Nature, 431(7008), 573–578.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsai, W. L., Hsu, P. C., Hwu, Y., Chen, C. H., Chang, L. W., Je, J. H., … Margaritondo, G. (2002). Electrochemistry: building on bubbles in metal electrodeposition. Nature, 417(6885), 139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R. L. (2002). Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Albers, B., & Kuczma, M. (Eds.). (2016). Continuous Media with Microstructure 2 (1st ed. 2016). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rigo, E. (2006). Citizens and Foreigners in the Enlarged Europe. In W. Sadurski, A. Czarnota, & M. Krygier (Eds.), Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders (pp. 97–119). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, August 6). Small Dog-Sized Dinosaur Discovered in Venezuela. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Survey of the Pricing of a NASA Contract with Eldec Corporation (No. 089013). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Limpert, S. M. (2017). A Qualitative Study of Learning Spaces at a Midwest Elementary School and its Relationship to Student Attitudes about Reading (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, June 9). May’s Most Popular Properties. New York Times, p. RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Potenza, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Szpiro, 2013; Wadman, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelliher & Walbot, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Fiser, Chiu, & Weliky, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Burguillos et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Journal of Music Therapy
AbbreviationNord. J. Music Ther.
ISSN (print)0809-8131
ISSN (online)1944-8260
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Phychiatric Mental Health

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