How to format your references using the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kay, R. F. (2015). Anthropology. New World monkey origins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6226), 1068–1069.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irion, U., & St Johnston, D. (2007). bicoid RNA localization requires specific binding of an endosomal sorting complex. Nature, 445(7127), 554–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael, H. A., Mulligan, A. E., & Harvey, C. F. (2005). Seasonal oscillations in water exchange between aquifers and the coastal ocean. Nature, 436(7054), 1145–1148.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sato, J., Omori, T., Oikawa, K., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R., & Ishida, K. (2006). Cobalt-base high-temperature alloys. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5770), 90–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid, M. M. (2006). Spacecraft Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Iliadis, L., & Jayne, C. (Eds.). (2011). Engineering Applications of Neural Networks: 12th INNS EANN-SIG International Conference, EANN 2011 and 7th IFIP WG 12.5 International Conference, AIAI 2011, Corfu, Greece, September 15-18, 2011, Proceedings Part I (Vol. 363). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2014). Comparison of the Current Theories. In M. McMahon (Ed.), Career Development and Systems Theory: Connecting Theory and Practice (pp. 121–134). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 7). Gaming Improves Your Brain Power – Reality Or Hype? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Highlights of a GAO Forum: Global Competitiveness: Implications for the Nation’s Higher Education System (GAO-07-135SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Primeaux, S. J. (2014). The Role of Education, Empathy, and Psychological Flexibility in Implicit and Explicit Mental Health Stigma [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2017, May 10). Vape Shops Fear Effects Of New F.D.A. Rules. New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kay, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Irion & St Johnston, 2007; Kay, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irion & St Johnston, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Michael et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sato et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Journal of Music Therapy
AbbreviationNord. J. Music Ther.
ISSN (print)0809-8131
ISSN (online)1944-8260
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Phychiatric Mental Health

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