How to format your references using the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2003). Proteomics technologies: probing the proteome. Nature, 424(6948), 581–587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wikelski, M., & Thom, C. (2000). Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño. Nature, 403(6765), 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yao, L., Xi, L., & Jiang, H. (2014). Photoacoustic computed microscopy. Scientific Reports, 4, 4960.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lauvau, G., Vijh, S., Kong, P., Horng, T., Kerksiek, K., Serbina, N., … Pamer, E. G. (2001). Priming of memory but not effector CD8 T cells by a killed bacterial vaccine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1735–1739.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1999). Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Priya, S., & Nahm, S. (Eds.). (2012). Lead-Free Piezoelectrics. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jauch, E. C., & Holmstedt, C. (2015). Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of Large, Randomized Clinical Trials. In P. D. Lyden (Ed.), Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Stroke (pp. 95–111). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 24). Asia’s Wildlife-Snaring Crisis Documented In Graphic Photographs. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Supplemental Student Loans: Legislative Changes Have Sharply Reduced Loan Volume (No. HRD-90-149FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marroquin Salvador, M. D. (2017). Hypervelocity Impact of Spherical Aluminum 2017-T4 Projectiles on Aluminum 6061-T6 Multi-Layered Sheets (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, September 17). At the Emmys, a Night of Politics and Trump. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2003; Wikelski & Thom, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wikelski & Thom, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Yao, Xi, & Jiang, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lauvau et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Journal of Music Therapy
AbbreviationNord. J. Music Ther.
ISSN (print)0809-8131
ISSN (online)1944-8260
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Phychiatric Mental Health

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