How to format your references using the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D. (2011). The voice of science: let’s agree to disagree. Nature, 478(7367), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aral, S., & Walker, D. (2012). Identifying influential and susceptible members of social networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6092), 337–341.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernlund, J. W., Thomas, C., & Tackley, P. J. (2005). A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature, 434(7035), 882–886.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Middey, S., Rivero, P., Meyers, D., Kareev, M., Liu, X., Cao, Y., Freeland, J. W., Barraza-Lopez, S., & Chakhalian, J. (2014). Polarity compensation in ultra-thin films of complex oxides: the case of a perovskite nickelate. Scientific Reports, 4, 6819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, R. (2003). Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mateo, C. R., Gómez, J., Villalaín, J., & González-Ros, J. M. (Eds.). (2006). Protein-Lipid Interactions: New Approaches and Emerging Concepts (Vol. 9). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Svinin, M., & Goncharenko, I. (2011). Models of and Experiments with Reaching Tasks in Haptic Virtual Environments. In E. W. Cooper, V. V. Kryssanov, H. Ogawa, & S. Brewster (Eds.), Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 6th International Workshop, HAID 2011, Kusatsu, Japan, August 25-26, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 32–41). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 23). Will Head Transplants Create An Entirely New Person? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Demand Distribution Rolodex Card (No. 154061). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noll, R. T. (2009). Physician acceptance of Computerized Physician Order Entry in outpatient settings: A quantitative analysis of family medicine within Maricopa County, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015, February 6). Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of the New York Times. New York Times, C36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Aral & Walker, 2012; Sarewitz, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aral & Walker, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Hernlund et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Middey et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Journal of Music Therapy
AbbreviationNord. J. Music Ther.
ISSN (print)0809-8131
ISSN (online)1944-8260
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Phychiatric Mental Health

Other styles