How to format your references using the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gottfried, K. (2000). Inferring the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics from the classical limit. Nature, 405(6786), 533–536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stebbins, C. E., & Galán, J. E. (2001). Maintenance of an unfolded polypeptide by a cognate chaperone in bacterial type III secretion. Nature, 414(6859), 77–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chisholm, S. W., Falkowski, P. G., & Cullen, J. J. (2001). Oceans. Dis-crediting ocean fertilization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5541), 309–310.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Munshi, N., Agalioti, T., Lomvardas, S., Merika, M., Chen, G., & Thanos, D. (2001). Coordination of a transcriptional switch by HMGI(Y) acetylation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1133–1136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros, N., Diakoumopoulou, E., Ioannidis, I., Liatis, S., Makrilakis, K., Tentolouris, N., & Tsapogas, P. (2006). Diabetes in Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Milton, K. A. (2006). Electromagnetic Radiation: Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators (J. Schwinger, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodman, J., Dong, H., Langdon, P. M., & Clarkson, P. J. (2006). Factors Involved in Industry’s Response to Inclusive Design. In J. Clarkson, P. Langdon, & P. Robinson (Eds.), Designing Accessible Technology (pp. 31–39). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 6). Male Seahorse Gives Birth To Babies Like An Underwater Shotgun. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Public Transit: Length of Development Process, Cost Estimates, and Ridership Forecasts for Capital-Investment Grant Projects (GAO-14-472). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Manglano, J. (2013). Working for pay or raising a family? Three papers on women’s work expectations and market outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2016, September 8). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gottfried, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gottfried, 2000; Stebbins & Galán, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stebbins & Galán, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Chisholm et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Munshi et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Journal of Music Therapy
AbbreviationNord. J. Music Ther.
ISSN (print)0809-8131
ISSN (online)1944-8260
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Phychiatric Mental Health

Other styles