How to format your references using the IEEE Communications Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Communications Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Norenzayan, “Behavior. Explaining human behavioral diversity,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6033, pp. 1041–1042, May 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. A. Krasnopolsky and P. D. Feldman, “Detection of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5548, pp. 1914–1917, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. R. Bieber, C. H. Brenner, and D. Lazer, “Human genetics. Finding criminals through DNA of their relatives,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5778, pp. 1315–1316, Jun. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. H. Bellamy, P. J. Loveland, R. I. Bradley, R. M. Lark, and G. J. D. Kirk, “Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978-2003,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7056, pp. 245–248, Sep. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. R. Lunt and J. D. Cunic, Profiles in Flue Gas Desulfurization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.
An edited book
E. W. Cooper, V. V. Kryssanov, H. Ogawa, and S. Brewster, Eds., Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 6th International Workshop, HAID 2011, Kusatsu, Japan, August 25-26, 2011. Proceedings, vol. 6851. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Fortmann, A. Ndhlovu, A. Ndlovu, R. Philippe, C. Rodrigue, and K. Wilson, “Climate Change and Social Sustainability: A Case for Polycentric Sustainabilities,” in Climate Change and Multi-Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture: Climate Change and Sustainability in Agriculture, R. Lal, D. Kraybill, D. O. Hansen, B. R. Singh, T. Mosogoya, and L. O. Eik, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Communications Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Faster-Than-Light Travel: Are We There Yet?,” IFLScience, May 08, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Need to Be Reassessed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-13-198, May 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Thomack, “Random Harmonic Polynomials,” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, “Ed Sheeran’s ‘Divide’ Breaks a Global Record,” New York Times, p. C3, Mar. 13, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Communications Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Commun. Lett.
ISSN (print)1089-7798
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

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