How to format your references using the IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. A. Remer, “Atmospheric science. Just add aerosols,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6188, p. 1089, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Synolakis and S. Foteinis, “Choking on carbon emissions from Greek academic paperwork,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7261, p. 167, Sep. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Ilonidis, J. Zhao, and A. Kosovichev, “Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6045, pp. 993–996, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Salih, A. Larkum, G. Cox, M. Kühl, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6814, pp. 850–853, Dec. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Vignes, Extractive Metallurgy 3. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
D. Hömberg and F. Tröltzsch, Eds., System Modeling and Optimization: 25th IFIP TC 7 Conference, CSMO 2011, Berlin, Germany, September 12-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 391. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Komatineni and D. MacLean, “Understanding Intents,” in Pro Android 4, D. MacLean, Ed. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2012, pp. 113–134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Genetic Map Of Mutations That Lead To Breast Cancer Unveiled,” IFLScience, May 03, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “GAO Technology Readiness Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Evaluating the Readiness of Technology for Use in Acquisition Programs and Projects--Exposure Draft,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-16-410G, Aug. 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. K. Hylton, “Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS, “Comic Strips Think Pink,” New York Times, p. C3, Oct. 04, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
AbbreviationIEEE/ACM Trans. Comput. Biol. Bioinform.
ISSN (print)1545-5963
Applied Mathematics

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