How to format your references using the Ibis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ibis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. 2015. Pesticides: Seeking answers amid a toxic debate. Nature 521: S52-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goncharenko, I. & Loubeyre, P. 2005. Neutron and X-ray diffraction study of the broken symmetry phase transition in solid deuterium. Nature 435: 1206–1209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pagel, M., Atkinson, Q.D. & Meade, A. 2007. Frequency of word-use predicts rates of lexical evolution throughout Indo-European history. Nature 449: 717–720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rayner, K.J., Esau, C.C., Hussain, F.N., McDaniel, A.L., Marshall, S.M., van Gils, J.M., Ray, T.D., Sheedy, F.J., Goedeke, L., Liu, X., Khatsenko, O.G., Kaimal, V., Lees, C.J., Fernandez-Hernando, C., Fisher, E.A., Temel, R.E. & Moore, K.J. 2011. Inhibition of miR-33a/b in non-human primates raises plasma HDL and lowers VLDL triglycerides. Nature 478: 404–407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wegener, E. 2003. Montagegerechte Anlagenplanung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
2006. Endourological Management of Urogenital Carcinoma (S. Naito, Y. Hirao, & T. Terachi, eds). Springer, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Friptuleac, G. & Bernic, V. 2014. Argumentation of Hygienic Indicators of Water Quality. In: Management of Water Quality in Moldova (G. Duca, ed), pp. 71–77. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ibis.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. 2017. New Stem Cell Method Produces Millions of Human Brain Cells In Days.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. New Navajo Construction Activities on the Navajo and Hopi Joint-Use Area.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denno, D. 2010. Multiple paths to first grade: A comparison of child, parent, and early education variables associated with multiple year kindergarten experiences. University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A. 2016. Police Ease Rules on Beards and Turbans for Religious Officers.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Goncharenko & Loubeyre 2005, Eisenstein 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goncharenko & Loubeyre 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Rayner et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleIbis
ISSN (print)1474-919X

Other styles