How to format your references using the Ibis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ibis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. Baywatch: San Francisco. Nature 427: 658–659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Borgani, S. & Guzzo, L. 2001. X-ray clusters of galaxies as tracers of structure in the Universe. Nature 409: 39–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ding, W.W., Murray, F. & Stuart, T.E. 2006. Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science 313: 665–667.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, S., Wang, J., Zhu, D., Wang, N., Gao, Q., Chen, W., Tang, H., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Liu, H., Rao, Z. & Wang, X. 2018. Cryo-EM structure of a herpesvirus capsid at 3.1 Å. Science 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai, C.S. 2006. Biomacromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2013. Image Processing and Communications Challenges 4 (R. S. Choraś, ed). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
McGee, R.W. 2009. Disclosure&Transparency. In: Corporate Governance in Developing Economies: Country Studies of Africa, Asia and Latin America (R. W. McGee, ed), pp. 43–48. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ibis.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. Gravitational Wave Observatory In Space Will See The Seed Of Supermassive Black Holes.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ethridge, G. 2012. Determining the variables that contribute to job tenure for people with psychiatric disabilities participating in an evidenced-based supported employment program. University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2007. Beachfront Cafe.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Borgani & Guzzo 2001, Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Borgani & Guzzo 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleIbis
ISSN (print)1474-919X

Other styles