How to format your references using the Ibis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ibis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mitchinson, A. 2014. Climate science: City heat. Nature 511: 163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wachsman, E.D. & Lee, K.T. 2011. Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells. Science 334: 935–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruff, C.C., Ugazio, G. & Fehr, E. 2013. Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation. Science 342: 482–484.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Anderson, M.C., Ochsner, K.N., Kuhl, B., Cooper, J., Robertson, E., Gabrieli, S.W., Glover, G.H. & Gabrieli, J.D.E. 2004. Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories. Science 303: 232–235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kraehmer, H. & Baur, P. 2013. Weed Anatomy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
2009. Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis VIII: 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2009, Lyon, France, August 31 - September 2, 2009. Proceedings (N. M. Adams, C. Robardet, A. Siebes, & J.-F. Boulicaut, eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Conti, N. & Memoli, V. 2016. One or Many EUs? In: Citizens, Europe and the Media: Have New Media made Citizens more Eurosceptical? (V. Memoli, ed), pp. 47–68. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ibis.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Million-Year-Old Monkey Fossil Discovered In Underwater Cave.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Program Administration at the Atterbury Job Corps Center in Indiana.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bui, L. 2017. Mind Over Matter Telepsychiatry. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2005. A TV Extravaganza of Music! Comedy! Militia! K.G.B.!

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mitchinson 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wachsman & Lee 2011, Mitchinson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wachsman & Lee 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Anderson et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleIbis
ISSN (print)1474-919X

Other styles