How to format your references using the Gene: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamburg, M.A., 2012. Science and regulation. FDA’s approach to regulation of products of nanotechnology. Science 336, 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horvath, P., Barrangou, R., 2010. CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea. Science 327, 167–170.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, W.K.W., Harrison, W.G., Head, E.J.H., 2006. Coherent sign switching in multiyear trends of microbial plankton. Science 311, 1157–1160.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoder, J., Pham, C., Iizuka, Y.M., Kanagawa, O., Liu, S.K., McGlade, J., Cheng, A.M., 2001. Requirement for the SLP-76 adaptor GADS in T cell development. Science 291, 1987–1991.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bosq, D., Blanke, D., 2007. Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions: Bosq/Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Duhovnik, J., 2015. Space Modeling with SolidWorks and NX. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Meza-Jiménez, J., Escamilla-López, M., Llamas-Cabello, R., 2014. Statistical Process Control: A Vital Tool for Quality Assurance, in: García-Alcaraz, J.L., Maldonado-Macías, A.A., Cortes-Robles, G. (Eds.), Lean Manufacturing in the Developing World: Methodology, Case Studies and Trends from Latin America. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene: X.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Archeologists Will Use Drones and Cosmic Rays To Peer Deep Inside The Pyramids [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Essential Actions Remain to Ensure Delivery of Critical Services (No. T-AIMD-99-268). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber, C., 2013. Exercise for older adults with dementia (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2017. A Clown and a Correspondent Join the Global Elite. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hamburg, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hamburg, 2012; Horvath and Barrangou, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Horvath and Barrangou, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoder et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene: X
ISSN (print)2590-1583

Other styles