How to format your references using the Gene: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haag, A., 2007. Climate of opportunity. Nature 448, 618–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hwang, C., Chang, E.T.Y., 2014. Geophysics. Seafloor secrets revealed. Science 346, 32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fried, S.I., Münch, T.A., Werblin, F.S., 2002. Mechanisms and circuitry underlying directional selectivity in the retina. Nature 420, 411–414.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
González-José, R., Escapa, I., Neves, W.A., Cúneo, R., Pucciarelli, H.M., 2008. Cladistic analysis of continuous modularized traits provides phylogenetic signals in Homo evolution. Nature 453, 775–778.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hossler, F.E., 2014. Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gavrilova, M.L., Tan, C.J.K., Thapliyal, H., Ranganathan, N. (Eds.), 2014. Transactions on Computational Science XXIV: Special Issue on Reversible Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lupfer, C.R., Kanneganti, T.-D., 2011. The Role of Inflammasomes in Viral Infection, in: Couillin, I., Pétrilli, V., Martinon, F. (Eds.), The Inflammasomes. Springer, Basel, pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene: X.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2014. The Science Of Orgasms [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Federal Funds: Fiscal Year 2001 Expenditures by Selected Organizations Involved in Health-Related Activities (No. GAO-03-527R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betito, J.-J.H., 2012. Improving the well-being of Filipino homebound adults through religious involvement, education, and socialization: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Grynbaum, M.M., Maheshwari, S., 2017. Fox Pitches Sports to Advertisers, but Specter of Its News Scandal Lingers. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haag, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Haag, 2007; Hwang and Chang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hwang and Chang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (González-José et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene: X
ISSN (print)2590-1583

Other styles