How to format your references using the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stan R. The borders I crossed. Science 2014;345(6204):1650.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
von Messling V, Cattaneo R. Virology. A henipavirus vaccine in sight. Science 2012;337(6095):651–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lee H, Habas R, Abate-Shen C. MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis. Science 2004;304(5677):1675–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Whitehouse I, Rando OJ, Delrow J, Tsukiyama T. Chromatin remodelling at promoters suppresses antisense transcription. Nature 2007;450(7172):1031–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
McDonnell G, Sheard D. A Practical Guide to Decontamination in Healthcare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Winer JA, Schreiner CE, editors. The Inferior Colliculus. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rehm G, Uszkoreit H. Jazykové Technológie Na Podporu Slovenčiny. In: Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The Slovak Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. page 17–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Liquid Water May Once Have Flowed On Vesta [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/claims-vesta-once-had-water/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. An Incident of Contamination of Livestock Feed and Certain Consumer Products. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nikolova S. Health insurance transitions of SCHIP-eligible children in response to higher public premiums. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. Frequent Fliers: Takeout Menus Can’t Compete With Politics. New York Times2001;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Postgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-3859
ISSN (online)0972-2823
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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