How to format your references using the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Minetti AE. Physiology: efficiency of equine express postal systems. Nature 2003;426(6968):785–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anikeeva P, Koppes RA. BIOENGINEERING. Restoring the sense of touch. Science 2015;350(6258):274–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook-Deegan R, Chandrasekharan S, Angrist M. The dangers of diagnostic monopolies. Nature 2009;458(7237):405–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blake WJ, KAErn M, Cantor CR, Collins JJ. Noise in eukaryotic gene expression. Nature 2003;422(6932):633–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wu Z. Software VNA and Microwave Network Design and Characterisation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2007.
An edited book
Wolf BA, Enders S, editors. Polymer Thermodynamics: Liquid Polymer-Containing Mixtures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Westphal M, Emami P. Pineal Lesions: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. In: Schramm J, editor. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 42. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 79–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. The USSR Tried To Cover Up One Of The World’s Deadliest Nuclear Fallout Sites [Internet]. IFLScience2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Misuse by the Sigma Corporation, a NASA Contractor. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hung H-C. Allocation of Jobs and Resources to Work Centers. 2006;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Whipping Up a Brew That Is True to You. New York Times2012;NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Postgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-3859
ISSN (online)0972-2823
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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