How to format your references using the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hu W. Ringing in the new cosmology. Nature 2000;404(6781):939–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Sui H, Downing KH. Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealed by cryo-electron tomography. Nature 2006;442(7101):475–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Merritt D, Ferrarese L, Joseph CL. No supermassive black hole in M33? Science 2001;293(5532):1116–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Rogers ME, Ilg T, Nikolaev AV, Ferguson MAJ, Bates PA. Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis by sand flies is enhanced by regurgitation of fPPG. Nature 2004;430(6998):463–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lalanne C. Fatigue Damage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Tuszynski JA, editor. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Yuz JI, Goodwin GC. Asymptotic Sampling Zeros. In: Goodwin GC, editor. Sampled-Data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems. London: Springer; 2014. page 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Bacteria Beat Plants To Quantum Capturing Of Light [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/physics/bacteria-beat-plants-to-quantum-capturing-of-light/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Improved Management Can Enhance FCC Decision Making for the Universal Service Fund Low-Income Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sherwin PR. The disconnection between high school and college: A study of retention of students who are at risk of leaving college before completing a degree. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard M. Keeping Up With His Followers. New York Times2013;E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Postgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-3859
ISSN (online)0972-2823
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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