How to format your references using the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Mackay AL. Character-building. Nature 2001;410(6824):19.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Jacobs SA, Khorasanizadeh S. Structure of HP1 chromodomain bound to a lysine 9-methylated histone H3 tail. Science 2002;295(5562):2080–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yang X, Zhou Y, Xiao M. Entangler via electromagnetically induced transparency with an atomic ensemble. Sci Rep 2013;3:3479.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Teemu J, Makinen T, Bertaux JL, Laakso H, Pulkkinen T, Summanen T, et al. Discovery of a comet by its Lyman-alpha emission. Nature 2000;405(6784):321–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pétrowski A, Ben-Hamida S. Evolutionary Algorithms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Ramon J, Denis LJ, editors. Prostate Cancer. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
De Pace B, Ferrari B, Pellacani G, Predieri B, Iughetti L, Veneziano L, et al. Confocal Microscopy: Improving Our Understanding of Nevogenesis. In: Marghoob AA, editor. Nevogenesis: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Nevus Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. page 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch Live Feed As Asteroid Approaches Closer Than The Moon [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/watch-live-feed-asteroid-approaches-closer-moon/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Medicaid Managed Care: Serving the Disabled Challenges State Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wang E. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Investigation of the Coyote Mountain Shear Zone. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hodara S. An Eye for the 20th Century. New York Times2014;WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Postgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-3859
ISSN (online)0972-2823
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles