How to format your references using the HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S., 2003. Europe attempts to promote women scientists. Nature 426, 210–211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lichtman, J.W., Denk, W., 2011. The big and the small: challenges of imaging the brain’s circuits. Science 334, 618–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abel, T., Bryan, G.L., Norman, M.L., 2002. The formation of the first star in the Universe. Science 295, 93–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, J., Gu, Y., Feng, J., Zhou, W., Yang, X., Shen, Y., 2014. Structural insight into the central element assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Sci. Rep. 4, 7059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, H., 2012. Cable-Stayed Bridges. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lu, A.-H., Dai, S. (Eds.), 2014. Porous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Capture, Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Seeger, M.A., Bordignon, E., Hohl, M., 2016. ABC Exporters from a Structural Perspective, in: George, A.M. (Ed.), ABC Transporters - 40 Years On. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Astronomers Spot A Star Being Ripped Apart By A Black Hole [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Land Management Systems: Status of BLM’s Actions to Improve Information Technology Management (No. AIMD-00-67). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, M., 2015. Opprobrious Identities: The Enslaving Effect of Black Respectability on Queer Black Men (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., 2017. ‘Brilliant,’ 41, And Lost to AIDS: The Theater World Asks Why. New York Times AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Goodman, 2003; Lichtman and Denk, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lichtman and Denk, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology
ISSN (print)0018-442X

Other styles