How to format your references using the HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2003. Human cloning claim sparks fear of Senate backlash. Nature 421, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jahn, R., Fasshauer, D., 2012. Molecular machines governing exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Nature 490, 201–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jedema, F.J., Filip, A.T., Van Wees, B.J., 2002. Spintronics (Communication arising): Spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature 416, 810.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ives, A.R., Einarsson, A., Jansen, V.A.A., Gardarsson, A., 2008. High-amplitude fluctuations and alternative dynamical states of midges in Lake Myvatn. Nature 452, 84–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratliff, T.A., 2005. The Laboratory Quality Assurance System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nielsen, P.M.F., Wittek, A., Miller, K. (Eds.), 2012. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bouhdadi, M., Balouki, Y., Chabbar, E.M., 2007. Meta-modelling Syntax and Semantics of Structural Concepts for Open Networked Enterprises, in: Gervasi, O., Gavrilova, M.L. (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2007: International Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 26-29, 2007. Proceedings. Part III, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. These New Super-Realistic Moving Dinosaur Models Are Terrifying [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Better Targeting Its Oversight, but Needs to Assess the Impact of Its Efforts (No. GAO-07-390T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerman, G.L., 2009. Information technology in the K–12 classroom: Curriculum and instruction reflecting emerging capacity and paradigms (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr., Rojas, R., 2016. An Impostor’s Lives and Lies. New York Times MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jahn and Fasshauer, 2012; Macilwain, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jahn and Fasshauer, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ives et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology
ISSN (print)0018-442X

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