How to format your references using the Hesperia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hesperia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weertman, J. R. 2012. “Materials Science. Retaining the Nano in Nanocrystalline Alloys,” Science 337, pp. 921–922.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuroda, H., and P. Maliga. 2003. “The Plastid ClpP1 Protease Gene Is Essential for Plant Development,” Nature 425, pp. 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gillis, A. J., A. P. Schuller, and E. Skordalakes. 2008. “Structure of the Tribolium Castaneum Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT,” Nature 455, pp. 633–637.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Whitman, K., A. M. Starfield, H. S. Quadling, and C. Packer. 2004. “Sustainable Trophy Hunting of African Lions,” Nature 428, pp. 175–178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sexton, D. 2009. Trump University Marketing 101, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Drechsel, P., M. Qadir, and D. Wichelns, eds. 2015. Wastewater: Economic Asset in an Urbanizing World, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Vincelli, P. 2010. “Technology Transfer in Extension: Experience in the United States of America,” in Knowledge and Technology Transfer for Plant Pathology, ed. N. Hardwick and M. L. Gullino, Dordrecht, pp. 55–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hesperia.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, June 21. “Smoking May Protect Against Parkinson’s Disease – But It’s More Likely To Kill You”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. “GAO Technology Readiness Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Evaluating the Readiness of Technology for Use in Acquisition Programs and Projects--Exposure Draft.”

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdy, D. W. 2017. “Identifying Shallow Foundation Failure Modes and Mechanisms Using Surveillance of a Transparent Granular Soil Surrogate” (diss. Florida Atlantic University).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. 2017, June 12. ““Bachelor in Paradise” Suspends Production,” New York Times 2017, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHesperia
ISSN (print)0018-098X
ISSN (online)1553-5622

Other styles