How to format your references using the Hesperia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hesperia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pilling, M. J. 2014. “Chemical Kinetics. Calculating the Pressure Dependence of Chemical Reactions,” Science 346, pp. 1183–1184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wasserman, S. A., and S. DiNardo. 2001. “Development. Staying a Boy Forever,” Science 294, pp. 2495–2497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, Y., Y. Shi, and S. Ding. 2008. “A Chemical Approach to Stem-Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine,” Nature 453, pp. 338–344.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chuck, G., M. Muszynski, E. Kellogg, S. Hake, and R. J. Schmidt. 2002. “The Control of Spikelet Meristem Identity by the Branched Silkless1 Gene in Maize,” Science 298, pp. 1238–1241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunt, R. R., and J. D. Cunic. 2000. Profiles in Flue Gas Desulfurization, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Davidson, L. 2006. Pro SQL Server 2005 Database Design and Optimization, eds. K. Kline and K. Windisch, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Miller, P., C. Sauzé, and M. Neal. 2014. “Development of ARRTOO: A Long-Endurance, Hybrid-Powered, Oceanographic Research Vessel,” in Robotic Sailing 2013: Proceedings of the 6th International Robotic Sailing Conference, ed. F. L. Bars and L. Jaulin, Cham, pp. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hesperia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, July 17. “Discovering A New Dinosaur Helped Us Prove Velociraptors Had Feathers”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. “FCC: Ka-Band Satellite Application and Licensing Procedure.”

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, J.-M. C. 2008. “The effect of class size on a teacher’s job satisfaction in a southeastern urban LEA” (diss. University of North Carolina).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. 2014, April 27. “A Twist on the Neighborhood Bar,” New York Times 2014, p. LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHesperia
ISSN (print)0018-098X
ISSN (online)1553-5622

Other styles