How to format your references using the Hesperia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hesperia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stafford, N. 2006. “Turbulent Times,” Nature 443, p. 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seife, C., and D. Malakoff. 2000. “PHYSICS: Will Livermore Laser Ever Burn Brightly?,” Science 289, pp. 1126–1129.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tatar, M., A. Bartke, and A. Antebi. 2003. “The Endocrine Regulation of Aging by Insulin-like Signals,” Science 299, pp. 1346–1351.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jacobs, K., D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. Paul Alivisatos. 2001. “Activation Volumes for Solid-Solid Transformations in Nanocrystals,” Science 293, pp. 1803–1806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito, L. J., Jr. 2017. Satellite Communications Systems Engineering, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Tirri, K., and P. Nokelainen, eds. 2011. Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Bezerra, L. C. T., M. López-Ibáñez, and T. Stützle. 2015. “To DE or Not to DE? Multi-Objective Differential Evolution Revisited from a Component-Wise Perspective,” in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part I (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), ed. A. Gaspar-Cunha, C. Henggeler Antunes, and C. C. Coello, Cham, pp. 48–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hesperia.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016, August 18. “LSD-Bunked: How Research Is Finally Separating The Facts From The Myths Surrounding Acid”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. “Social Security Administration: Internet Access to Personal Earnings and Benefits Information.”

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horvath, C. P. 2012. “Comparison of waste heat driven and electrically driven cooling systems for a high ambient temperature, off-grid application” (diss. University of Maryland, College Park).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2008, June 14. “Over Guantánamo, Justices Come Under Election-Year Spotlight,” New York Times 2008, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHesperia
ISSN (print)0018-098X
ISSN (online)1553-5622

Other styles