How to format your references using the Hesperia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hesperia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young, K. D. 2014. “Microbiology. A Flipping Cell Wall Ferry,” Science 345, pp. 139–140.
A journal article with 2 authors
He, F., and S. P. Hubbell. 2011. “Species-Area Relationships Always Overestimate Extinction Rates from Habitat Loss,” Nature 473, pp. 368–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soares, L., M. Parisi, and N. M. Bonini. 2014. “Axon Injury and Regeneration in the Adult Drosophila,” Sci. Rep. 4, p. 6199.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prouteau, G., B. Scaillet, M. Pichavant, and R. Maury. 2001. “Evidence for Mantle Metasomatism by Hydrous Silicic Melts Derived from Subducted Oceanic Crust,” Nature 410, pp. 197–200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak, P. 2011. Fine Chemicals, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cristini, C. 2011. L’ultima Creatività: Luci Nella Vecchiaia, eds. M. Cesa-Bianchi, G. Cesa-Bianchi, and A. Porro, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Tjosvold, D., P. Wan, and M. M. L. Tang. 2016. “Trust and Managing Conflict: Partners in Developing Organizations,” in Building Trust and Constructive Conflict Management in Organizations (Industrial Relations & Conflict Management), ed. P. Elgoibar, M. Euwema, and L. Munduate, Cham, pp. 53–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hesperia.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016, August 11. “Tiny Teeth In Corkscrew Poop Show Ancient Sharks Were Cannibalizing Their Young.”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. “Federal Research: Interim Report on the Small Business Innovation Research Program.”

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, P. J. 2009. “A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa” (diss. Northcentral University).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. 2016, June 10. “Friday File,” New York Times 2016, p. C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHesperia
ISSN (print)0018-098X
ISSN (online)1553-5622

Other styles