How to format your references using the Hesperia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hesperia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turnbaugh, P. J. 2012. “Microbiology: Fat, Bile and Gut Microbes,” Nature 487, pp. 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelliher, T., and V. Walbot. 2012. “Hypoxia Triggers Meiotic Fate Acquisition in Maize,” Science 337, pp. 345–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, J.-E., J. Chen, and Z. Lou. 2008. “DBC1 Is a Negative Regulator of SIRT1,” Nature 451, pp. 583–586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Manzanares, M., H. Wada, N. Itasaki, P. A. Trainor, R. Krumlauf, and P. W. Holland. 2000. “Conservation and Elaboration of Hox Gene Regulation during Evolution of the Vertebrate Head,” Nature 408, pp. 854–857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stolarski, T. A., and S. Tobe. 2000. Rolling Contacts, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Marchand-Maillet, S., E. Bruno, A. Nürnberger, and M. Detyniecki, eds. 2007. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: User, Context, and Feedback: 4th International Workshop, AMR 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, July 27-28, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gorlewski, J. A., D. A. Gorlewski, and T. M. Ramming. 2012. “Standard 4,” in Theory into Practice: Case Stories for School Leaders (Constructing Knowledge), ed. D. A. Gorlewski and T. M. Ramming, Rotterdam, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hesperia.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016, November 17. “The Leonid Meteor Shower Peaks Tonight”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. “Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Governmentwide Strategy Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs.”

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hagarty, E. P. 2008. “A predictive risk modeling system for the management of small-scale water and wastewater facilities: Toward long-term sustainability of our national parks” (diss. George Washington University).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E. 2012, May 13. “A Dozen Writers Put Down Their Pens to Prove the Might of a March,” New York Times 2012, p. A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHesperia
ISSN (print)0018-098X
ISSN (online)1553-5622

Other styles