How to format your references using the Hesperia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hesperia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke, P. R. 2005. “Cell Biology. A Gradient Signal Orchestrates the Mitotic Spindle,” Science 309, pp. 1334–1335.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mashburn, L. M., and M. Whiteley. 2005. “Membrane Vesicles Traffic Signals and Facilitate Group Activities in a Prokaryote,” Nature 437, pp. 422–425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benham-Pyle, B. W., B. L. Pruitt, and W. J. Nelson. 2015. “Cell Adhesion. Mechanical Strain Induces E-Cadherin-Dependent Yap1 and β-Catenin Activation to Drive Cell Cycle Entry,” Science 348, pp. 1024–1027.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Irmis, R. B., S. J. Nesbitt, K. Padian, N. D. Smith, A. H. Turner, D. Woody, and A. Downs. 2007. “A Late Triassic Dinosauromorph Assemblage from New Mexico and the Rise of Dinosaurs,” Science 317, pp. 358–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene, A. 2013. Keene on the Market, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ginat, D. T., and S. K. Freitag, eds. 2015. Post-Treatment Imaging of the Orbit, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
de Leoni, M., A. Marrella, and A. Russo. 2011. “Process-Aware Information Systems for Emergency Management,” in Towards a Service-Based Internet. ServiceWave 2010 Workshops: International Workshops, OCS, EMSOA, SMART, and EDBPM 2010, Ghent, Belgium, December 13-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), ed. M. Cezon and Y. Wolfsthal, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hesperia.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015, October 15. “Tubby Jaguar “Too Fat To Breed,” According To His Keepers”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. “Physical Infrastructure: Challenges and Investment Options for the Nation’s Infrastructure.”

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuthbertson, T. H. 2014. “The fool’s replies: Toward a poetics of folly in Shakespeare’s comedies” (diss. Indiana University).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 2016, December 23. “The Listings: Film Series,” New York Times 2016, p. C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHesperia
ISSN (print)0018-098X
ISSN (online)1553-5622

Other styles