How to format your references using the Hepatology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chamberlin RV. Mean-field cluster model for the critical behaviour of ferromagnets. Nature. 2000;408:337–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rakow NA, Suslick KS. A colorimetric sensor array for odour visualization. Nature. 2000;406:710–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lim HS, Rim YS, Kim HJ. Photoresist-free fully self-patterned transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistors obtained by sol-gel process. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4544.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Erb K-H, Kastner T, Plutzar C, Bais ALS, Carvalhais N, Fetzel T, et al. Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass. Nature. 2018;553:73–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Blanchet G, Charbit M. Digital Signal and Image Processing Using Matlab®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Volchkov VV. Harmonic Analysis of Mean Periodic Functions on Symmetric Spaces and the Heisenberg Group. Volchkov VV, editor. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jaffe K. Insights on Cooperative Electricity Consumption in Human Aggregates from a Thermodynamic Analysis: Implications for Energy Policies. In: Leal Filho W, Voudouris V, editors. Global Energy Policy and Security. London: Springer; 2013. p. 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology International.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Citizen Scientists Help Locate “Spiders” On Mars. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Examination of Disbursing Officer’s Account, U.S. Army Aviation Center and School, Ft. Rucker, Alabama. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Apr. Report No.: 102186.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nellenbach KM. Contributions of oral language, problem-solving, and reading attitudes to young adolescents’ silent reading comprehension [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. One-of-a-Kind Gifts, All Made by Hand. New York Times. 2005 Nov 20;14LI17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology International
AbbreviationHepatol. Int.
ISSN (print)1936-0533
ISSN (online)1936-0541

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