How to format your references using the Hepatology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gurnett DA. Obituary: James A. Van Allen (1914-2006). Nature. 2006;443:158.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cassenaer S, Laurent G. Hebbian STDP in mushroom bodies facilitates the synchronous flow of olfactory information in locusts. Nature. 2007;448:709–13.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Green ED, Watson JD, Collins FS. Human Genome Project: Twenty-five years of big biology. Nature. 2015;526:29–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tian J, Gong H, Sheng N, Zhou X, Gulari E, Gao X, et al. Accurate multiplex gene synthesis from programmable DNA microchips. Nature. 2004;432:1050–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Brown RA. Extreme Tissue Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Tsui BCH, Suresh S, editors. Pediatric Atlas of Ultrasound- and Nerve Stimulation-Guided Regional Anesthesia. 1st ed. 2016. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Floreddu P, Cabiddu F, Pettinao D. Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making: The Case of PPGIS. In: D’Atri A, Ferrara M, George JF, Spagnoletti P, editors. Information Technology and Innovation Trends in Organizations: ItAIS: The Italian Association for Information Systems. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2011. p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology International.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. FBI Admits Using Flawed Scientific Evidence In Trials [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/fbi-admits-using-flawed-hair-evidence-trials/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area--Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jan. Report No.: AA-97-13(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Novak TS. Vital Signs of U.S. Osteopathic Medical Residency Programs Pivoting to Single Accreditation Standards [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mishan L. The Taste of Darkness. New York Times. 2017 Sep 21;M2166.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology International
AbbreviationHepatol. Int.
ISSN (print)1936-0533
ISSN (online)1936-0541
ScopeHepatology

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