How to format your references using the Hepatology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Corbyn Z. Prevention: lessons from a sunburnt country. Nature. 2014;515:S114-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Etienne RS, Rosindell J. Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science. 2012;336:1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mercader J, Panger M, Boesch C. Excavation of a chimpanzee stone tool site in the African rainforest. Science. 2002;296:1452–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jorgensen P, Nishikawa JL, Breitkreutz B-J, Tyers M. Systematic identification of pathways that couple cell growth and division in yeast. Science. 2002;297:395–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bisen PS, Raghuvanshi R. Emerging Epidemics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
1. Brahnam S, Jain LC, editors. Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare 6. Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy, Rehabilitation, and Assessment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mulder MB. The Unusual Women of Mpimbwe: Why Sex Differences in Humans are not Universal. In: Kappeler PM, Silk J, editors. Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 85–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology International.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Millions of Gallons of “Missing” BP Oil are Sitting at the Bottom of the Gulf [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Infrastructure: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-96-187.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hardiman BS. Resilience of Forest Carbon Storage through Disturbance and Succession [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Ex-Google Venture Capitalist Is Opening Fund of His Own. New York Times. 2017 May 16;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology International
AbbreviationHepatol. Int.
ISSN (print)1936-0533
ISSN (online)1936-0541

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