How to format your references using the Hepatology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rotblat J. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Taking Responsibility. Science. 2000;289:729.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Han Y, Grier DG. Fluid dynamics: Vortex rings in a constant electric field. Nature. 2003;424:267–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Debruyne R, Schwarz C, Poinar H. Comment on “Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts.” Science. 2008;322:857; author reply 857.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sun T-Q, Ye Q, Wang X-W, Wang J, Deng Z-C, Mei J-C, et al. Scanning focused refractive-index microscopy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5647.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ryan TP. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement: Ryan/Quality Improvement 3E. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Haynes G, editor. American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Blokhuis H, Veissier I, Jones B, Miele M. The Welfare Quality® vision. In: Blokhuis H, Miele M, Veissier I, Jones B, editors. Improving farm animal welfare: Science and society working together: the Welfare Quality approach. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2013. p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology International.

Blog post
1. Davis J. The Month In Which You’re Born Could Influence Which Diseases You Develop. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Homeland Security: Oversight and Coordination of Research and Development Should Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Sep. Report No.: GAO-12-837.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. E C-C. The syntax of comparative correlatives in Mandarin Chinese [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Bruce’s Third Homer in Five Games Helps Protect Wild-Card Lead. New York Times. 2016 Sep 29;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology International
AbbreviationHepatol. Int.
ISSN (print)1936-0533
ISSN (online)1936-0541

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