How to format your references using the Hellenic Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hellenic Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller SJ. Chemistry. Total chemical synthesis peers into the biosynthetic black box. Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):186–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Annas GJ, Elias S. Politics, morals and embryos. Nature. 2004 Sep 2;431(7004):19–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherman DH, Tsukamoto S, Williams RM. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. Comment on “Asymmetric syntheses of sceptrin and massadine and evidence for biosynthetic enantiodivergence.” Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):149.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kustikova O, Fehse B, Modlich U, Yang M, Düllmann J, Kamino K, et al. Clonal dominance of hematopoietic stem cells triggered by retroviral gene marking. Science. 2005 May 20;308(5725):1171–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Canham J, Bennett J. Mentorship in Community Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Giambene G, editor. Resource Management in Satellite Networks: Optimization and Cross-Layer Design. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. XXVIII, 338 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Raiser K. What Is Secularization? In: Raiser K, editor. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts on Religion. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 50–65. (SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hellenic Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. Alzheimer’s Is Slowly Giving Up Its Secrets – And ‘Risk Genes’ Are Just One Piece Of The Puzzle [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Risk of Serious Disruption to Essential Government Functions Calls for Agency Action Now. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Feb. Report No.: T-AIMD-97-52.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi A. Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grady D. When Illness Makes a Spouse a Stranger. New York Times. 2012 May 5;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHellenic Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationHell. Cheirourgike
ISSN (print)0018-0092
ISSN (online)1868-8845

Other styles