How to format your references using the Hellenic Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hellenic Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mace GM. Ecology. Whose conservation? Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1558–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sazanov LA, Hinchliffe P. Structure of the hydrophilic domain of respiratory complex I from Thermus thermophilus. Science. 2006 Mar 10;311(5766):1430–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kitching RP, Taylor NM, Thrusfield MV. Veterinary epidemiology: vaccination strategies for foot-and-mouth disease. Nature. 2007 Feb 8;445(7128):E12; discussion E12-3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Banal JL, White JM, Ghiggino KP, Wong WWH. Concentrating aggregation-induced fluorescence in planar waveguides: a proof-of-principle. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 10;4:4635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huang F, Klette R, Scheibe K. Panoramic Imaging. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Golbeck JH, editor. Photosystem I: The Light-Driven Plastocyanin:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XXXI, 713 p. (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration; vol. 24).
A chapter in an edited book
Adams DG, Duggan PS. Signalling in Cyanobacteria–Plant Symbioses. In: Perotto S, Baluška F, editors. Signaling and Communication in Plant Symbiosis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 93–121. (Signaling and Communication in Plants).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hellenic Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Poo Transplants Can Eliminate Two Superbugs From The Gut: Mice Study [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Access and Reverse Commute Program: Progress Made in Using Funds and Stakeholder Views on Proposed Program Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 May. Report No.: GAO-11-518.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher A-C. Exceptionality and parent -professional conflict: Causes, prevention and resolution [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly S. Beware of the Westminster Kennel’s Best in Show. New York Times. 2003 Feb 16;42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHellenic Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationHell. Cheirourgike
ISSN (print)0018-0092
ISSN (online)1868-8845

Other styles