How to format your references using the Healthcare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohman, M. Biochemistry. A Cold Editor Makes the Adaptation. Science 2012, 335, 805–806.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rammig, A.; Mahecha, M.D. Ecology: Ecosystem Responses to Climate Extremes. Nature 2015, 527, 315–316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perlo, J.; Casanova, F.; Blümich, B. Ex Situ NMR in Highly Homogeneous Fields: 1H Spectroscopy. Science 2007, 315, 1110–1112.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, S.; Dong, J.; Yao, Z.; Shen, C.; Shi, X.; Tian, Y.; Lin, S.; Zhang, X. One-Pot Synthesis of Graphene-Supported Monodisperse Pd Nanoparticles as Catalyst for Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaut Roth, C.; Faulkner, W.H., Jr Review Questions for MRI; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.: West Sussex, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118782934.
An edited book
Aniridia: Recent Developments in Scientific and Clinical Research; Parekh, M., Poli, B., Ferrari, S., Teofili, C., Ponzin, D., Eds.; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319197784.
A chapter in an edited book
Aleksic, V.; Degtyarev, A. On Arbitrary Selection Strategies for Basic Superposition. In Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 10th European Conference, JELIA 2006 Liverpool, UK, September 13-15, 2006 Proceedings; Fisher, M., Hoek, W. van der, Konev, B., Lisitsa, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 20–28 ISBN 9783540396253.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. SpaceX Unveils Its Stylish Crew Dragon Spacecraft That Will Take Astronauts To Space Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Competitive Financing Mechanisms: Auctions Used by Federal Agencies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doss, A. Trapped within the White Gaze: A DuBoisian Approach to Understanding the Existential Burden of Being a Black Man in America. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Viktor Astafyev, Who Wrote of Rural Russia, Dies at 77. New York Times 2001, F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare
AbbreviationHealthcare (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9032

Other styles