How to format your references using the Healthcare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cepko, C. Neuroscience. Seeing the Light of Day. Science 2010, 329, 403–404.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reches, Z.; Lockner, D.A. Fault Weakening and Earthquake Instability by Powder Lubrication. Nature 2010, 467, 452–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christodoulides, D.N.; Lederer, F.; Silberberg, Y. Discretizing Light Behaviour in Linear and Nonlinear Waveguide Lattices. Nature 2003, 424, 817–823.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, M.S.; Kwon, Y.T.; Li, M.; Peng, J.; Friedlander, R.M.; Tsai, L.H. Neurotoxicity Induces Cleavage of P35 to P25 by Calpain. Nature 2000, 405, 360–364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B.M. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783527637102.
An edited book
The 1940 Vrancea Earthquake. Issues, Insights and Lessons Learnt: Proceedings of the Symposium Commemorating 75 Years from November 10, 1940 Vrancea Earthquake; Vacareanu, R., Ionescu, C., Eds.; Springer Natural Hazards; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319298436.
A chapter in an edited book
Brewin, C.R. A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Recovered Memory Experiences. In True and False Recovered Memories: Toward a Reconciliation of the Debate; Belli, R.F., Ed.; Nebraska Symposium on Motivation; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; pp. 149–173 ISBN 9781461411949.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Neanderthal DNA Influences Your Biology A Lot More Than You Realize Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Comments on MARAD Cooperative Agreement Award for Ship Simulator]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haigh, C.V. More Than Skin Deep: The Impact of Self-Esteem, Desire for Lighter Skin, and Gender on the Mental Health of University Students in Thailand. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Study to Help Coordinate Transportation Solutions. New York Times 2006, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare
AbbreviationHealthcare (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9032

Other styles