How to format your references using the Healthcare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hentze, M.W. Protein synthesis. Believe it or not-translation in the nucleus. Science 2001, 293, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghalambor, C.K.; Martin, T.E. Fecundity-survival trade-offs and parental risk-taking in birds. Science 2001, 292, 494–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2686.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, T.; Guo, P.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Chen, L.; Yang, H.; Qian, X.; Yang, Q. A crystal structure-guided rational design switching non-carbohydrate inhibitors’ specificity between two β-GlcNAcase homologs. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1999; ISBN 9780470935385.
An edited book
Dréo, J. Metaheuristics for Hard Optimization: Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search, Evolutionary and Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colonies,… Methods and Case Studies; Siarry, P., Pétrowski, A., Taillard, E., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; ISBN 9783540230229.
A chapter in an edited book
Marshall, S.A.; Bell, R.; Armonda, R.A.; Ling, G.S.F. Management of Moderate and Severe TBI. In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis, Management, and Rehabilitation; Tsao, J.W., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; pp. 69–87 ISBN 9780387878867.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Ancestors Of Humans And Chimps May Have Begun Diverging 13 Million Years Ago Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Arthur Schoenhaut; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao, W. The epitope specificity of the human anti-Candida albicans antibody M1g1. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. White House Offers Justifications for Firing. New York Times 2017, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare
AbbreviationHealthcare (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9032

Other styles