How to format your references using the Healthcare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Türler, A. Nuclear Chemistry: Lawrencium Bridges a Knowledge Gap. Nature 2015, 520, 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neil, D.D.; Gillikin, D.P. Do Freshwater Mussel Shells Record Road-Salt Pollution? Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Afraz, S.-R.; Kiani, R.; Esteky, H. Microstimulation of Inferotemporal Cortex Influences Face Categorization. Nature 2006, 442, 692–695.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Breton, R.P.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kramer, M.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Lyutikov, M.; Ransom, S.M.; Stairs, I.H.; Ferdman, R.D.; Camilo, F.; Possenti, A. Relativistic Spin Precession in the Double Pulsar. Science 2008, 321, 104–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wierenga, E.R. The Philosophy of Religion; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119414384.
An edited book
Security, Race, Biopower: Essays on Technology and Corporeality; Randell-Moon, H., Tippet, R., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137554079.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Y.; Li, Q. Photoresponsive Chiral Liquid Crystal Materials: From 1D Helical Superstructures to 3D Periodic Cubic Lattices and Beyond. In Nanoscience with Liquid Crystals: From Self-Organized Nanostructures to Applications; Li, Q., Ed.; NanoScience and Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 135–177 ISBN 9783319048666.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Study Finds That The More Beautiful Your Home Is, The Less Likely You Are To Be Religious Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The United States in Europe: Staying the Course to Win the Peace; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cong, M. Predictive Models of Cytotoxicity as Mediated by Exposure to Environmental Toxicants and Drugs. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. Typically Chummy Ritual Offers Moment of Catharsis. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare
AbbreviationHealthcare (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9032

Other styles