How to format your references using the Applied Health Economics and Health Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kyriacou CP. Physiology. Unraveling traveling. Science. 2009;325:1629–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Marone C, Richardson E. Geophysics. Do earthquakes rupture piece by piece or all together? Science. 2006;313:1748–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rozin P, Haidt J, Fincher K. Psychology. From oral to moral. Science. 2009;323:1179–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Moberg A, Sonechkin DM, Holmgren K, Datsenko NM, Karlén W, Lauritzen S-E. Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data. Nature. 2005;433:613–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lau JYF. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Collins MJ. Pro Project Management with SharePoint 2010. Hassell J, Anglin S, Beckner M, Buckingham E, Cornell G, Gennick J, et al., editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kothgassner OD, Felnhofer A, Hlavacs H, Beutl L, Gomm J, Hauk N, et al. Debunking Differences between Younger and Older Adults Using a Collaborative Virtual Environment. In: Anacleto JC, Clua EWG, Silva FSC da, Fels S, Yang HS, editors. Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2013: 12th International Conference, ICEC 2013, São Paulo, Brazil, October 16-18, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 36–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Health Economics and Health Policy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Scientists Shed A Little Bit Of Light On Elusive True’s Beaked Whales [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education Block Grant: How Funds Reserved for State Efforts in California and Washington Are Used. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 May. Report No.: HRD-86-94.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. George KA. Housing adequacy and civic engagement in Los Angeles County [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Gathering in the Boss’s Office, This Time to Honor Him. New York Times. 2010 Sep 21;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Health Economics and Health Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Health Econ. Health Policy
ISSN (print)1175-5652
ISSN (online)1179-1896
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Medicine
Health Policy

Other styles