How to format your references using the Applied Health Economics and Health Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dearing A. Enabling Europe to innovate. Science. 2007;315:344–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Reik W, Kelsey G. Epigenetics: Cellular memory erased in human embryos. Nature. 2014;511:540–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Reece SE, Drew DR, Gardner A. Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites. Nature. 2008;453:609–14.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rinaldi S, Maioli M, Pigliaru G, Castagna A, Santaniello S, Basoli V, et al. Stem cell senescence. Effects of REAC technology on telomerase-independent and telomerase-dependent pathways. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Plantin J-C. Participatory Mapping. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Lanin A. Thermal Stress Resistance of Materials. Fedik I, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Heuser M-L. The Significance of Naturphilosophie for Justus and Hermann Grassmann. In: Petsche H-J, Lewis AC, Liesen J, Russ S, editors. From Past to Future: Graßmann’s Work in Context: Graßmann Bicentennial Conference, September 2009. Basel: Springer; 2011. p. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Health Economics and Health Policy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Teens Invent Condoms That Change Color When They Detect STDs [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/teens-invent-condoms-changes-color-when-it-detects-stds/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Commercial Space Transportation: Industry Trends and Key Issues Affecting Federal Oversight and International Competitiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 May. Report No.: GAO-11-629T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Marshall LD. The jeweled net, sacred landscape, and the vision of the heart [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chapman MM, Saulny S. A Tragedy in Detroit, With a Reality TV Crew in Tow. New York Times. 2010 May 22;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Health Economics and Health Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Health Econ. Health Policy
ISSN (print)1175-5652
ISSN (online)1179-1896
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Medicine
Health Policy

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