How to format your references using the Graphical Models citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graphical Models. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.V. Holmes, Structural biology. Adaptation of SARS coronavirus to humans, Science. 309 (2005) 1822–1823.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.S. Hyde, E.I. Knudsen, The optic tectum controls visually guided adaptive plasticity in the owl’s auditory space map, Nature. 415 (2002) 73–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.-W. Wang, S.-M. Ka, A. Chen, Robust image registration of biological microscopic images, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6050.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Li, C. Wang, Z.-M. Zhang, Y.-Q. Cheng, J. Zhou, The structural basis of an NADP+-independent dithiol oxidase in FK228 biosynthesis, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.J. Wootton, C. Smith, Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M.-G. Di Benedetto, F. Bader, eds., Cognitive Communication and Cooperative HetNet Coexistence: Selected Advances on Spectrum Sensing, Learning, and Security Approaches, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Doria, Relativistic Electrons-Based THz Sources: Principles of Operation and the ENEA Experience, in: M. Perenzoni, D.J. Paul (Eds.), Physics and Applications of Terahertz Radiation, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 123–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graphical Models.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Students Use 3-D Printer To Produce Prosthetic Arm For $200, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Federal Government Making Progress But Critical Issues Must Still Be Addressed to Minimize Disruptions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.M. Parada, Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Top Sprinters Test Positive, Jolting Track World, New York Times. (2013) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraphical Models
AbbreviationGraph. Models
ISSN (print)1524-0703
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Geometry and Topology
Modelling and Simulation

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