How to format your references using the Graphical Models citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graphical Models. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Collinge, Cell biology. The risk of prion zoonoses, Science. 335 (2012) 411–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Rape, M.W. Kirschner, Autonomous regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex couples mitosis to S-phase entry, Nature. 432 (2004) 588–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.L. Freimund, K. Aflatooni, H. Batelaan, Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect, Nature. 413 (2001) 142–143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J.R. Vázquez de Aldana, G.R. Castillo, B. del R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, F. Chen, Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5988.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F.W. Menk, C.L. Waters, Magnetoseismology, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
J.G. Backhaus, ed., Physiocracy, Antiphysiocracy and Pfeiffer, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Kokkinos, Bounding Part Scores for Rapid Detection with Deformable Part Models, in: A. Fusiello, V. Murino, R. Cucchiara (Eds.), Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. Workshops and Demonstrations: Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graphical Models.

Blog post
J. Davis, Adults Are Having Less Sex Now Than They Were Two Decades Ago, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Rulemaking: Agencies’ Use of Information Technology to Facilitate Public Participation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Vento-Wilson, The role of the speech-language pathologist and augmentative and alternative communication with acute care patients with severe communication impairments, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Gelles, L. Thomas Jr., A.R. Sorkin, K. Kelly, Rebellion by Business Leaders Spelled End of Trump Councils, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraphical Models
AbbreviationGraph. Models
ISSN (print)1524-0703
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Geometry and Topology
Modelling and Simulation

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