How to format your references using the Graphical Models citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Graphical Models. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.P. Page, Comment on “Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system,” Science. 320 (2008) 1588; author reply 1588.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Garrett, J.J.C. Rosenthal, RNA editing underlies temperature adaptation in K+ channels from polar octopuses, Science. 335 (2012) 848–851.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Miyazaki, K. Sueyoshi, T. Hiraga, Olivine crystals align during diffusion creep of Earth’s upper mantle, Nature. 502 (2013) 321–326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. King, G. Johnson, D. Engelberg, W. Ludwig, J. Marrow, Observations of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in a grain-mapped polycrystal, Science. 321 (2008) 382–385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lombard, SolidWorks® Administration Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
B.M. Dawant, G.E. Christensen, J.M. Fitzpatrick, D. Rueckert, eds., Biomedical Image Registration: 5th International Workshop, WBIR 2012, Nashville, TN, USA, July 7-8, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Bastasch, H. Choy, Combinations of Topoisomerase Inhibitors and Ionizing Radiation, in: J.M. Brown, M.P. Mehta, C. Nieder (Eds.), Multimodal Concepts for Integration of Cytotoxic Drugs, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Graphical Models.

Blog post
T. Hale, Chile Creates 11 Million Acres Of New National Parks, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Equal Employment Opportunity Program Could Be Improved, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.I. Simmons, A Logistic Regression Analysis of Multiple Independent Variables Impacting Psychiatric Readmissions, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: More Delay In Final Verdict For Tycoon, New York Times. (2005) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGraphical Models
AbbreviationGraph. Models
ISSN (print)1524-0703
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Geometry and Topology
Modelling and Simulation

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